Published since 1969, Nagarlok is quarterly open access journal. It consists of relevant research articles, book reviews, commentaries, documents and notes that broadly covers topics related to Urban Studies with a focus on Urban Life, Metropolitan System, Urban Economic Development, Urban Finances, etc.
Nagarlok is a double blind peer-reviewed journal listed under UGC-CARE Group I.
Editor: Surendra Nath Tripathi
Jt Editor: Kusum Lata
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ABHAY PETHE/RASHMI SHARMA
COVID-19 being the headliner of the year 2020, in the absence of a vaccine or medication, has engulfed the whole world. In India, though the lockdown was conceived as a response at a very early stage, the number of cases have multiplied more than 1000 times since then.
Pandemic in simple terms is an infectious disease spreading into various regions and continents affecting large populations. World witnessed several pandemics earlier like Spanish flu which led to heavy human loss and suffering hundred years back. In recent years viruses like SARS, Ebola, Nipah, etc., have affected humans. The latest of this is Covid-19 virus belonging to SARS group.
U B SINGH
Lucknow is a historical city. Its administration owes its genesis to British days. It is, however presently the largest city in most populous state of Uttar Pradesh. Being the state capital, it enjoys distinctly placed status and position. Lucknow Municipal Corporation is a leading municipal corporation in the state. It strived hard to become the role model for others. Its revenue balance is encouraging.
KAAVIYA R./V. DEVADAS
The term resilience has been defined as the ability to bounce back or bounce forward. Building resilience in the urban systems is an upcoming research field pertaining to the various challenges posed by the climatic and environmental changes. The resilience of an urban system depends upon the available infrastructure to maintain acceptable levels of functionality during and after disruptive events and to recover full functionality within the specified period of time.
JAYESHKUMAR MAHESHKUMAR BHAGWAT/ VERUVAL DEVADAS
Cities of the developing world have become the centre of opportunities. The concentration of resources in the cities has led to a major socio-economic inequality between urban and rural life. It is necessary for city planners to find innovative, hybrid and cohesive policy planning approaches for the development of the urban system.
SHRUTI VAISHAMPAYAN/ RAHUL DESHPANDE/TUSHAR JADHAV
Infrastructure projects (urban or otherwise) are meant for greater good of people and therefore reflect their needs. Citizen participation is of utmost importance considering this goal. Studies in the past have attempted to define the success of projects through benefits realisation. In public infrastructure projects the end user is the citizen of that nation. However, meaningful citizen engagement has been a challenge for cities all over the world. With the advent of Smart Cities Mission in India in 2015, this aspect of citizen engagement has been brought to the forefront again as an important objective to be achieved. The mission aims to be truly reflective of citizen’s aspirations through a massive public outreach programme. In this paper, the processes followed in citizen engagement during the proposal formation phase as well as during the execution phase are studied. The example of City of Pune, is taken to understand the processes during formulation phase.
ANJALI SHARMA/ P. S. N. RAO/ ASHOK KUMAR
Rapid urbanisation in India over the last few decades has resulted in the overcrowding of cities and the emergence of slums. Mumbai, one of the largest cities in India, houses a considerable segment of its population in slums. There have been several attempts to initiate slum policies that meet the housing and community needs of slum dwellers while also gaining the broader objective of urban development. This article examines the impact of slum policies on slum dwellers in Mumbai, using the lens of Henri Lefebvre’s “Right to the City” specifically the aspects of equality, equity and justice. The author concludes by stating that the existing policies overlooked most of the rights of slum dwellers while benefitting other participants such as the real estate developers.
U. B. SINGH
Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in India falls amongst the states experiencing moderate urban growth but quantum jump in the emergence of census towns, as per census 2011. The increase was quadrupled over 2001. The eastern part of the state has larger number, but smaller census towns, in comparison to its western counterpart which is more urbanised, commercialised and industrialised. These towns contain about eight per cent of the state’s urban content, but are administered rurally. The Ministry of Urban Development has advised the states to convert these census towns to statutory towns with urban local body on priority. The state government seems determined to expand its urban network provisioning basic services to a large segment of the population. In last decade little more than a score of census towns have been converted to statutory towns, whereas about 80 new towns with municipality have been created. It is advisable that census towns near to statutory towns should be merged with existing statutory towns. Census towns in western region containing large population should be converted to statutory towns with municipality on priority.
MANSOOR H KHAN
Dehradun is the capital of Uttarakhand province of India, created in 2000 after carving it out of Uttar Pradesh province. Since then, Dehradun has been the hub of all the major developmental activities. Due to population influx from its neighbouring hilly districts and huge growth of the industries, there was high pressure on its civic authorities and the municipal bodies to dispose the waste generated by the households and the commercial units.
The present article examines the issue of utilisation of land in Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in India. A significant proportion of land is lying vacant in SEZs. Low proportion of operational SEZs—with the addition of only few new—together with denotification are co-existing. Since India is a land-starved country, any under utilisation of land is a colossal waste of the scarce resources. The article, therefore focuses on understanding the land aspect of the SEZs at macro and micro level. The macro level analysis is carried out at an all-India level using secondary data while micro level at the level of particular SEZ using primary data generated from the field survey conducted in two SEZs located at Jaipur. Much of the analysis is based on cross tabulation and GIS mapping technique. The analysis reveals level of utilisation of SEZ land to be about 37 per cent at the national level. Within processing area around 45 per cent land is lying vacant. The issue is visible at micro level as well. The setting up of new units in already existing SEZs and linking incentives and conditions to quantum of exports, investment achieved, and location of those zones in unproductive lands appears to be the best possible strategy to ensure land utilisation.
Landscaping gives the expression of freedom and extreme happiness in an individual’s mind. This study discusses how to conserve energy in a site or a building through landscape architecture. Since the world is going through adverse climatic changes, it is important to conserve energy and do our best to make it a habitable place for our future generations.
AMAN SINGH RAJPUT
The research tries to evaluate the type and dynamics of the spatial growth pattern in the Indore peri-urban areas using spatial metrics over the built environment. It also explores the importance of the regional road network and the economic geography in the development of this zone and its related characteristics. The study of spatial growth of the city using spatial metrics enables the planners and policymakers to undertake the decision for sustainable development of the city.
M.M. GOEL/ISHU GARG
It has been found that own resources of Municipalities and Panchayats are not sufficient to meet their expenditure requirements. Also, for some years, Municipalities and Panchayats have not utilised their entire resources. The delays involved in the provision of grants and other transfers towards Municipalities and Panchayats must be prevented. To improve the functioning of Municipalities and Panchayats, we need manpower and elected representatives to be street SMART (Simple, Moral, Action Oriented, Responsive and Transparent).We have to adopt a sustainable fiscal path including judicious expenditure by keeping in mind the receipts that fall in the domain of needonomics (economics of needs).
This article examines the effect of neoliberal policies and processes—namely accumulation, dispossession, conversion and annexation, on urban land use in Bhubaneswar. Indian government’s smart city drive to control unplanned urban growth is also tampering with existing urban land use. Under this backdrop, the author first argues that the ultimate outcome of all this is land grabbing.
Property tax is considered as the backbone to the own source revenue of municipal governments in India. However, several Indian cities have not been able to tap the full potential of it for several reasons. One of the important issues affecting property tax revenue is that their taxation systems are designed on the basis of - Annual Rateable Value (ARV) of properties. Mumbai is the first Indian city to move away from ARV system towards adopting Capital Value (CV) based taxation of properties as a step forward. The reforms led to gains in property tax revenue for the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). This case describes the salient features of this property tax reform undertaken by the MCGM, which can be replicated by other Indian cities.
SIMRANJOT SINGH/SANJAY MISHRA
Navi Mumbai, the city situated on the Indian west coast is surrounded by various ecologically sensitive elements both on land and in waters. As the city keeps on growing, these areas also become vulnerable so as the population residing in the city. The present article is an attempt to identify and review green building alternatives for the city by studying the various parameters and strategies given by different rating organisations in the context of Navi Mumbai and Indian scenario for sustainable development of the city in the future.
The present article attempts to study, analyse and understand the major challenges, key issues of governance, various factors, intricacies, impact of currents and undercurrents of the political power affecting the various dimensions of the desired efficient performance of the urban governance of Nagpur Municipal Corporation.
The Covid -19 pandemic has affected the life, health and livelihoods of millions, especially the poor, migrants, children and women. This needs revisiting the concepts of housing and community planning, which focus on public health and hygiene, livelihoods and composite redevelopment. The buildings by themselves should be able to detox the air, function as water capturers, energy generators and promote waste recycling. The paper suggests a resources pyramid and morphotectonic strategies for green and hygienic communities and buildings.
V N ALOK/PRADEEP PANDA
Through 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments, Panchayat and Municipal systems were provided a systematic and endurable structure of participatory political process at grass root level. State finance commission is constituted for determination of vertical and horizontal transfers to municipalities and panchayats. Haryana state finance commission (SFC) has been constituted regularly. Sixth SFC was constituted on 22nd September 2020 for the period 2021-22 to 2025-26. The state has also showed progressive development towards achieving sustainable development goals except gender equality (SDG 5) and life on land (SDG 15) goals. Haryana has been a pioneer state in carrying out fiscal reforms. As per the budget estimates for 2020-21, fiscal deficit was projected at Rs. 25,682 crore, constituting 2.73 per cent of GSDP, which is well within the stipulated norm of three per cent under FRBM Act. Similarly, the debt to GSDP ratio has also been maintained below the norm of 25 per cent as prescribed under the FRBM Act. The state of Haryana through the Panchayati Raj Act, 1994 has devolved all 29 functions, included in the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution, to all the three rungs of Panchayats. Fifth SFC recommended vertical devolution of seven per cent and horizontal devolution in the ratio of 45 per cent for Municipalities and 55 per cent for Panchayats. Sixth State Finance Commission may review previous SFC reports, suggest, inter alia, new local taxes, present data on which the reports are based, complain about poor data base, attempt estimates of local taxable capacities in terms of measurable indicators, indicate full O&M requirement of core services and suggest budget and accounting reforms of the local governments.
INDERJEET SINGH SODHI/ASHISH JHA
Since decades, the debate has been going on about social, economic, cultural and political development. In recent years, there has been a growing need for “inclusive development” to meet contemporary development demands and challenges. It is argued that although economic growth is important, but it is not enough to foster people’s welfare. The time demands for such a development approach which may ensure the equal, fair and equitable distribution of growth benefits across all parts of society, especially large sections of vulnerable communities. In Indian context, inclusion and exclusion have multiple dimensions as the country has lot of heterogeneity and diversity in terms of many aspects; it may be culture, language, beliefs, geographical location, educational status, caste, religion, creed, races, etc. Keeping in view these dynamics, each area people have different needs and concerns and their visualisation and expectations of inclusion and exclusion also differs. Therefore, each area has a different system of governance structure at local level. The research study attempts to delve into relevant literature to discuss the role of urban local governments in ensuring inclusive development.
The rapid urbanisation in India has resulted in un-ubiquitous regional development and multilateral difficulties at diverse levels starting from city to regional levels, which clearly demonstrated the lopsided urban planning and unregulated governance of the urban ecosystem unfavourably. Indian cities are facing the problems of traffic congestion, reduction of green cover, haphazard peri-urban settlements, an increased traffic, affecting the cities and surrounding areas’ environment adversely. The present problems will worsen over the coming decades with phenomenal urban population that requires an urgent attention to urban planning with reference to smart city mission project. The article evaluates the significance of smart city missions in comprehensive planning which could deliver an improved urban milieu and help achieve the goal of resilient Urban India.
Urban local bodies can substantiate their relevance in the decentralised structure of governance by measuring up to competitive environment in which they have to function. The mandate of being institutions of participative democracy is to be vindicated with a changed paradigm of accountable service delivery. To this end, restructuring aimed at a financial and functional autonomy, is the key to institutional reforms in the modern day urban governance. This paper highlights structural and functional dimensions of urban governance system in Haryana as well as the best practices being followed in the other states. The state has challenges peculiar to its geopolitical realities and the prevalent system of urban governance in Haryana needs to be streamlined for coping with the increasing pressure owing to the rapid pace of urbanisation in the State which is likely to be accelerated in the years ahead. Adaptive structures of local governance are needed to maintain social capital and address economic interests that are engines of growth in the emerging cities.
KANCHAN GUPTA/SMITA NIMSARKAR
Town Planning Scheme is one of the best tools in Urban Land Management for transforming irregular shaped lands into serviced plots. For Government organizations implementing mega infrastructure projects, this is the paramount alternative to Land Acquisition Act in today’s world where land prices are sky-high. In Town Planning Scheme public participation in the project through consultation and interaction is one of the primitive factor for transparency and effective implementation of the project. The paper portrays case of City and Industrial Development Corporation of India’s (CIDCO) Navi Mumbai Airport Influence Notified Area (NAINA) Town Planning Schemes (TPs), a regulatory time bound micro level planning adopted to implement infrastructure in sanctioned NAINA Development Plan under the ambit of Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning (MR & TP) Act, 1966. The objective of this article is to enhance the environmental and institutional framework of land Owners’ Meet conducted in NAINA Town Planning Schemes. The outcomes of consultative mechanism of NAINA TPs in pre-COVID and post-COVID times is the tangible learning for Global practices.
As the public policy and initiatives are a dynamic process, several new initiatives were added in the urban Agenda of Government of India in the first quarter of 2021-22. These initiatives give due cognizance to urbanisation and its ability to contribute in the inclusive, productive and environment friendly growth along with more effective response to COVID-19. T
The Planning Commission during its 9th Five-Year Plan highlighted the need for additional resource development for railways through non-tariff methods and stated “Railways being owners of vast tracks of lands, can supplement their financial resources by certain non-tariff measures like utilisation of land/air-space for commercial purposes”. Thus, the Railway Land Development Authority (RLDA) was constituted in 1989 by an amendment to the Railways Act. It is a statutory body under the Ministry of Railways that aims to develop land/air space entrusted to it on sound commercial principles for the generation of non-tariff revenue and creation of assets for the Indian Railways. The Indian Railways (IR) has approximately 43,000 hectares of vacant land. The zonal railways will identify the land which is not required for operational purposes in the foreseeable future and the details thereof would be advised to Railway Board. These identified plots will then be entrusted to RLDA for their commercial development in phases. The Railway Development Land Authority is working on four major projects, namely – Commercial and Residential Development, Multifunctional Complex, Colony Re-development and Station Development.
Parking spaces in cities have emerged as a major policy problem, especially in Metropolitan cities. Increasing population in urban areas and growing economic well being has put pressure on the parking infrastructure in most of the cities as people prefer owning personal vehicle rather than depending on the public transport, if they can afford. However, growth in vehicular population has meant that more space is needed for parking these vehicles. Studies have indicated that millions of barrels of oil are consumed everyday in the search for parking spaces. Parking is a stressful experience for drivers and consumes a lot of time as well. Governments world over have focused more on providing and managing parking spaces in commercial areas though parking in residential areas is equally problematic.
AMIT KUMAR SINGH
Declining ground water level is one of the major concerns of urban India. Among them, Delhi is one of the water-stressed cities of the world and is going to become a water scarce city in due course. This scarcity of water in the city gets accentuated by many factors. The growing population, coupled with ever-increasing pollution, increasing demand from industrial and commercial water along with the leakage in the supply systems and wasteful consumption practices pose major challenges for the City Administrators.
In 1966, Centre for Training and Research in Municipal Administration (CTRMA) was established in IIPA with the support of Ministry of Health and Family Planning, Government of India, the then nodal ministry on urban local bodies. The Centre was created with specific objectives to operate as a knowledge centre and think tank on urban sector issues and an apex institution at national level. CTRMA was rechristened as CUS (Centre for Urban Studies) in 1974-75. Director General, IIPA is the Director of CUS and chairperson of the Steering Committee. A faculty of CUS is nominated as Coordinator CUS, who becomes the Member-Secretary of the Steering committee. CUS has an interdisciplinary team of faculty members from Economics, Public Administration, Urban Planning and Civil Engineering background. In addition other faculty members of IIPA drawn from environment, disaster management, social development and e-governance background provide their professional input to CUS on case to case basis.
Urban self-governance in India has its own set of challenges. There are some critical, both institutional and non-institutional road blocks that are obstructing the efficient and autonomous functioning of urban local bodies in the country. Against this backdrop, the present paper throws light on the overwhelming obstructions that are making the notion of democratic and participatory self-governance, a distant reality for the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in India. This paper argues that the municipal bodies in India function as mere vassals of state governments. They neither pose obligatory strategic flexibility nor do they have political legitimacy. Partly this is because of the failure of the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act and JNNURM, the most concrete and profound initiatives of the Government of India regarding the acknowledgement of India’s urban contingency, to envisage dynamics of the complex urban conformations. Furthermore, the paper suggests some alternative avenues through which the current urban reality of India can be lined up with the constitutional directives and existing legislative frameworks. Finally, the paper paves the path for some future research endeavours that can hold forth to the existing knowledge apertures in the field of urban self-governance in India, so that ULBs can maximise their capabilities to work as democratic institutions for local people and their interests through bridging the gap between local communities and the upper strata of democratic government.
RITU RAJ KAUR/SAKSHI SAHNI/GURSHARAN KAUR/RAVI INDER SINGH
Governance relates to the structure and functioning of the government and the institutional arrangements and processes of civil society. A society having high degree of resource scarcity due to intense competition for raw materials and increasing demand for livelihood resources requires an efficient and just environmental governance system. This article attempts to include environmental governance initiatives at the international, national and local levels. Further, an attempt has been made to identify the key challenges at the local level related to environmental governance.
Kerala has made tremendous achievements in poverty reduction over the decades, the baggage of the poverty and unemployment has been continuing in the urban areas of Kerala. A large proportion of the work force among urban poor is still in the informal sector. It has given a view point that economic indicators such as nature of employment and sources of income should be accorded with the highest priority for poverty reduction. It is clear that the growth in employment opportunities has a strong influence to reduce the extent of urban poverty. This paper looks into the profile of economic activities of urban poor to measure the extent of urban poverty at household level. It covers the areas such as employment status, category of workers, monthly earnings and determinants of income of urban poor households in Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi.
Urban landscapes have some perennial problems like water pollution, air pollution, depleting aquifer, water scarcity, and sewage. Though they look unsolved as of today, but these are all linked towards sustainable living and understanding of the natural ecology. Vaidic Science has a sustainable solution for all these, and the same is also implemented successfully in many places across the country. The author is one of the designated partners of Vaidic Srijan LLP, which is a Limited Liability Partnership firm formed in March 2021. He and his partner have built their technology for “resurrection of the native ecology” for restoration and rejuvenation of Soil, Water and Air.
Delhi has seen an influx of population during the 1941-1951 decade primarily due to the partition of India. The Government, Cooperative and private sector developed residential colonies through large scale acquisition of land, to accomodate increased population. The land was acquired under the provisions of the Land Acquisition Act 1894.
K.K. PANDEY/KUSUM LATA/SACHIN CHOWDHRY/AMIT KUMAR SINGH
This section includes national urban events and innovations as reported by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs through its facebook and twitter account. The period of second quarter of current fiscal year - July to August 2021 - has seen specific focus on Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav-celeberating (75 years of independence from the historic year of 1947), Digital connectivity and mobility in urban Sector in India. Various urban institutions are gearing up in these areas for a sector wise follow up. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs is taking actions with its institutions and also engaging states and ULBs for further replication.
Development is inextricably linked to urbanisation, which is a significant driver of economic growth. As India approaches the tipping point of shifting from a predominantly rural to an urban culture, the focus must be on securing the best economic growth possibilities for all sections of the population. The change is most likely to result in uncontrolled crisis and to avoid such situations; we must promptly and considerably increase the country’s current cumulative capacity of urban planning and development.
Trading of carbon credits emerged as an incentive for implementing ‘Clean Development Mechanism’ (CDM) emphasized under Kyoto Protocol. One carbon credit permits any entity to emit equal to 1 ton of carbon dioxide. So the entity reducing its Green House Gas (GHG) emission earns carbon credits to the extent it is able to reduce its GHG emissions, which it can sell in a carbon market to another entity which is emitting more than the permissible limits.
During the COVID-19 pandemic when lockdowns and restrictions were enforced, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUA) took several initiatives under the National Urban Livelihood Mission to address the livelihood concerns of the urban street vendors by facilitating. These initiatives facilitate access to institutional credit, suitable online market space, social security, etc.
MEET FATEWAR/VINITA YADAV
Urbanisation is defined as an index of transformation from agrarian economies to modern industrial ones. In the world, the majority of the population lives in urban settlements with 55.29 per cent in 2018, though the definition of urban settlements differs from continent to continent or country to country. In fact, the variation in the number of criterions has also been observed between the countries of the same continent. Therefore, to compare the urbanisation level between different countries by using national criteria is broadly non-comparable due to the variation in the definition of ‘urban settlement’. India describes the definition of ‘urban settlement’ more specifically and in a more meaningful manner. Thus, the analytical research has been carried-out to analyse the urbanisation pattern, assess the level of urbanisation, and study the urbanisation trend at both the levels i.e. international (continent-wise) and national (state-wise).
By 2030, India’s urban population is projected to increase to 600 million. However, the present level of urbanisation (31.1%) is lower than its peer group of developing countries like China, Indonesia and Brazil. Nevertheless, Indian cities face severe urban challenges in terms of deficits in infrastructure, governance and sustainability that cumulatively pose a challenge to India’s growth trajectory. The major challenge is to create competitive and inclusive cities. The flagship programme of the Government of India, the Smart City Mission tries to address these challenges to make its cities liveable and sustainable. This paper focuses on the nature of unbalanced urbanisation in India and whether the Smart City Mission (SCM) can work towards sustainable development synchronising spatial and economic growth. Bulk of investments of this Mission is earmarked for the cities which are already contributing to increasing inequality. It is quite likely that such investments will increase migration, leading to more deprivation of smaller towns. Unless, benefits of the smart cities are spilled over to the neighbouring areas, the intended inclusive mission may result in exclusion of economically weaker sections of the cities as well as the rest of India.
MAHESHWARI GUPTA/RABIDYUTI BISWAS
Growing contestation on the policy reforms and implementation is quite significant in the last few years. Diverse narratives related to water policy reforms and discourses have achieved considerable scholarly attention. These narratives vary from water rights, challenges of groundwater management, access to clean water and sanitation, gender equity for access to water and sanitation, integrated water resource management to inter-state river management. Adding to the global agenda of water security, climatic change has given a new dimension to the discussion. Availability of freshwater has been severely hit by natural disasters leading to water scarcity in major parts of the world. Therefore, to handle the scenario wisely, the focus of the current water management reform relies on efficient policymaking to strengthen the overall water governance, water planning and water management. This research explores the structuring of the water policies in India focusing on the components of existing National Water Policies.
PANKHURI BHATIA/ASHWANI LUTHRA
Urban system, generally referred to as networking of towns and cities having socio-cultural and economic interdependencies, is witnessed to experience varying spatial distribution patterns on account of varying accessibility levels, economic potentials, availability of natural and human resources, administration primacy, statutory urbanization policy, etc. Studies on distribution of urban settlements reflect varying accessibility levels and absence of urbanization policy, which tend to bring about imbalances in their distribution pattern. Punjab is a rapidly urbanizing state of India, which presents different distribution patterns due to variations in physiography, economic base, and transportation network in its regions. An appraisal of urban settlement distribution pattern reveals clustered, nucleated, and linear patterns of distribution in the State. Disaggregated analysis through application of nearness neighbourhood principle on the urban settlements of Punjab reveals three distributional segments in the State namely random distribution of settlements in the west, linear clustering in the central and eastern parts. However, parts of the State away from the central rail–road corridor and closer to inter-state boundaries show varying spatial distribution patterns. The present paper focuses on the investigating varying distributional patterns in different regions of the State with an objective to suggest policy framework for balanced urban system.
B. AMARENDER REDDY/PUSHPALATHA POLU
The study aims to understand the issues faced by street vendors: impact of covid shutdowns, eviction, rent payment, ID cards, people who benefitted from PM Street Vendor AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) Yojana: the policy meant to help street vendors rebuild their business by giving them loans without collateral. We conducted mixed research with quantitative questionnaire by survey method and qualitative research by freewheeling chat after the questionnaire to bring out their perspectives. Many interesting observations came to light from our research. Like in most other industries, the gender composition of street vendors is heavily dominated by male vendors. 61 per cent of street vendors are migrants, out of these 56 per cent have migrated to native places during Covid crisis. On the bright side, 86 per cent of street vendors possess ID cards. 88 per cent of those who applied for PM SVANidhi loan, have received it. The study draws important observations on issues faced by street vendors and the success of PM SVANidhi Yojana in the disbursement of loans to street vendors.
Urban communities around the globe are confronting with everexpanding challenges. These challenges are being driven by, and exacerbated by, increments in urban population and environmental change. Urban areas grow perseveringly while fears of an unnatural weather change and ecological calamity loom ever more prominent, and the ‘green’ or ‘sustainable city’ is playing a significant role in planning and policy discourse to manage the emerging situations. In this context recently published book Blue infrastructure: Natural History, Political Ecology and Urban Development in Kolkata, by Jenia Mukherjee takes a ‘longuedurée approach’ to deal with catching the dynamicity of the delta through nuanced investigations of the steady exchange among land, water, and mud. It uncovers how this space could decide, and thus get dictated by, political power, finance, and social livelihoods across changing temporal directions and moving towards political-financial goals that convey long-term suggestions for sustainability. The author has used ‘Historical Urban Political Ecology’ (HUPE) as a perspective to contextualize the “urban nature” with special reference to Kolkata and beyond.
K.K. PANDEY/KUSUM LATA/SACHIN CHOWDHRY/AMIT KUMAR SINGH
The last quarter of 2021 ended with an important event covering change of guard in the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA). Senior bureaucrat Shri Manoj Joshi, IAS, 1989, Kerala Cadre took over the charge from Shri Durga Shanker Mishra (1984 batch, Utter Pradesh Cadre) as Secretary, MoHUA on 30th December 2021. Nagarlok, Centre for Urban Studies and all IIPA family welcome the new Secretary, during this year of Amrit Mahotsav. Shri Joshi has assumed the responsibility at a crucial time when for the first time union budget has made special reference to the role of urbanisation in the growth story of India during next 25 years. We are sure that Government of India will evolve due strategy for structural adjustment (the expansion of manufacturing and services) and competitive edge which involves cities and towns as enabler of economies of scale, environment friendly, pro-poor, productive and sustainable development
Heritage is full range of our inherited tradition, monuments, objects and a culture. Most important it is a range of contemporary activities and behavior that we draw from them. Dimensions of heritage are summarised in the Fig. 1. Heritage is a broad and a dynamic concept which includes the cultural as well as natural environment. It encompasses built environment, historic places sites, landscapes as well as biodiversity, knowledge collection of past and different cultural practices and living experiences. It is a point of concern and positive tool for growth and change. Heritage is a collective memory of each locality and community. Heritage provides emotional and intellectual platforms on which individuals and communities establish their identity.
I n India, urban areas started receiving focused attention starting this century with the realisation that cities contribute significantly to the economic growth. However, the interventions initially were response to lack of basic infrastructure across the country. It was understandable because a large population in the cities did not have access to even basic services like drinking water, sewerage, solid waste management, etc. As the population in the cities grew and estimates showed that it would grow even further with the economic development, both the Central Government and the various state governments prepared road-maps for meeting all concomitant challenges. The city governments were also given and assumed important role in the endeavour.
The future of India’s vibrant and rapidly growing cities largely depends on an efficient, reliable and safe transport system. In the last few decades our cities have witnessed tremendous growth in private vehicles. Unfortunately it has turned into increased vehicle population, congestion on city roads, and lack of public space along the road side. In fact the rapid growth in vehicle numbers needs to be supported by an efficient, reliable, safe and green transport system in the long term. At present cities of India are amongst the worst affected in terms of air pollution. As per World Air Quality Report, 2019 six out of ten most polluted cities worldwide are located in India including Delhi, which is ranked as the world’s most polluted city. It is thus necessary to focus on mass public transport systems, non-polluting modes, and pedestrian friendly transport network to achieve safer and healthy cities.
KUSUM LATA/ANJITA R NAIR/SAURABH BHATT
Waste management in urban areas can pose manifold challenges that can threaten the goal of achieving sustainable cities. The need of the hour is to assess the existing waste management practices in our cities and explore new alternatives to develop cost-effective, non-hazardous long-term waste management plans. The Solid Waste Management Rules 2016 instructed Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in India to investigate and analyse existing dumpsites to explore their potential for biomining and bioremediation. This paper briefly touches upon the challenges posed by poorly managed municipal solid waste and also provides a glimpse into measures adopted by the Indore Municipal Corporation (IMC) in successful implementation of Bio-remediation of process.
Water is an essential natural resource which is not only necessary for human life but also for flora and fauna. It is a known fact that scarcity of water for agriculture and the poor quality of drinking water will result in shortage of food and it will also adversely impact the human health. To make available clean and affordable drinking water and proper sanitation especially in urban areas is a gigantic task that requires appropriate policy designing, planning, sustainable management and effective implementation. Water also forms the part of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 6 that state “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. The clean water supply along with providing other amenities to citizens has always remained critical in the Indian context. In Delhi, Delhi Jal Board (DJB) shoulders the responsibility of providing drinking water and sanitation. But the DJB comes across a number of issues and challenges while providing safe drinking water and sanitation which need to be addressed and resolved on an urgent basis.
SUNANDA SHARMA/ASHWANI LUTHRA
Increasing urbanisation has led the cities to sprawl beyond their municipal limits on the rural lands, known as peri-urban areas. The development in the peri-urban areas is characterised by conversion from agricultural land to other land uses. The upcoming new development in the peri-urban results in various changes in socio-economic and physical characteristics. Punjab Urban Planning & Development Authority (PUDA) approved planned, regularised, and unplanned/ unauthorised residential developments in the peri-urban area of the Amritsar metropolis are appraised to assess the level of satisfaction of residents about the basic amenities available within it.
VASANTA SOBHA TURAGA
Zamindari/Samsthan Palaces built during the 17th—20th Centuries across India are buildings of historical and architectural significance but are unprotected and lying in neglect and disrepair. Zamindars and Rajas, who were heads of local areas in preIndependent India, were divested of their positions, privileges and major land holdings after the Independence and abolition of Zamindari systems and political integration of princely states. Interactions with the present generation of Zamindar families/ lineage of erstwhile rulers have revealed situations and dilemmas due to changed/changing political, legal, economic, social and cultural conditions, and the challenges, opportunities they face in maintenance and management of the historic properties that they have inherited. As part of the Doctoral research at School of Planning and Architecture, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture & Fine Arts University, Hyderabad, 27 Samsthans/Zamindari palaces of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh were studied under the research work. This paper presents the findings from the research work, listing out a few of the socio-cultural dilemmas of the owners of the historic properties, affecting the present state of preservation of erstwhile Samsthan/Zamindari Palaces of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh as representing the Unprotected Heritage in India.
SAKSHI SAHNI/PARIDHI KATYAL/RAWAL SINGH AULAKH
Amritsar, also known as the holy city due to the presence of Golden temple, has a history of about 570 years. The city has experienced various setbacks, like 1947 partition, and 1984 Operation Blue Star, but it has still not lost its glory and history. The redevelopment project namely the Heritage Street project from Town Hall to Golden Temple has been considered as a marvellous wonder for tourists, and pilgrims but its actual reality explains a different scenario altogether. As, behind the façade of stone cut latticework (jallis/ pinjrakari), there are a cluster of shops where no renovation has been done over several years. The aesthetically beautiful re-development project of Heritage Street has been restricted to a stretch of one km approximately. Some of the shopkeepers behind these facades are facing major hardships in terms of business. These older areas need preservation to overcome all the drawbacks. The present article examines a recent development that took place along the approach roads leading to Golden Temple. The authors have tried to evaluate the gaps in terms of infrastructure and facilities as well as other planning issues encountered during the study.
SHIV PRAKASH KATIYAR
The study analyses the impact of various policy measures promulgated for the removal of practice of manual scavenging in our country. The news about the deplorable death of manual scavengers during cleaning of gutters is common across India. It is worth noting that the practice of manual scavenging persists even after being outlawed in 1993 and 2013. District Magistrates had been submitting false affidavits before the Hon’ble Supreme Court claiming absence of manual scavenging in their district. Although the Government of India claims the country to be free of open defecation and manual scavenging, even then, deaths of manual scavengers are occurring in the gutters. In contravention to it, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment reports the existence of 62334 manual scavengers in the country as on December 31, 2019. These factors prove the existence of a significant number of manual scavengers and manual scavenging which is a pertinent issue.
K.K. PANDEY/KUSUM LATA/SACHIN CHOWDHRY/AMIT KUMAR SINGH
The important events in the urban sector in India in first quarter of 2022 are (i) first ever focus on urban sector in the speech of Union Finance Minister, (ii) Meetings on Bilateral Collaboration on urban issues, (iii) Environment Promotion, (iv) PMSVANidhi, (v) Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, (vi) Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0, (vii) Metro rail, (viii) Municipal Bonds.
Lately the focus of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), Government of India, has increased towards use for Geospatial Technology in all aspects of urban planning and development in Urban Sector. Use of Geospatial Technologies in various urban sector missions since 2015 follows:
Getting recognition and appreciation for the efforts put in by the people has long been accepted as an effective motivational strategy. This strategy seems to be working effectively in the smart cities programme of the Government of India as well. Smart Cities Mission (SCM) is an ambitious program and necessary for developmental needs of the country and the concerned officials need to be engaged on a continuous basis.
Urbanization, a global phenomenon, has several ramifications. The uncontrolled generation of waste by city population coupled with unscientific waste handling by municipalities is causing severe health hazards and urban environment degradation. At present our municipal waste mostly ends up in illegal dumps on streets, in peri-urban areas, open spaces within the cities, wastelands, drains or rivers. As per Ahluwalia and Patel (2018), approximately 80% to 90% of the municipal solid waste in India is dumped in landfills without proper management practices and open burning, leading to air, water, soil pollution.
Worldwide governments are being pushed to alter their government systems in order to provide citizen-centric service delivery through the use of cutting-edge Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The use of e-governance has emerged as a critical tool in the fight against the evils of mismanagement and corruption. Over the course of more than two decades, e-governance initiatives have been introduced in India. The present study is set in the context of the growing significance of governance, public service delivery and e-governance, which highlights various issues like awareness, efficiency, transparency, responsiveness, participation and accountability. The study particularly examines the critical e-governance parameters of the Citizen Services Monitoring System (CSMS) initiative in urban areas of Telangana. Based on the study results, important policy suggestions have been provided.
The activities at national level witnessed consolidation of proposals of flagship urban missions and other specific schemes/projects towards annual follow–up, and inter-country and multi-lateral cooperation with a particular reference to (i) PMSVanidhi, (ii) Smart City Mssion, (iii) AMRUT (iv) Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0, (v) Housing/PM Avas Yojana, (vi) Urban Mobility and (vii) Bi-lateral/Multi-lateral Cooperation.
SATEESH KUMARAND RAMBOOSHAN TIWARI
Coal mining in India has initiated the process of urbanisation in sparsely populated interior regions of India, and most of the colliery towns of India are small in size and mono-functional in nature. Coal mining in central India was initiated at the beginning of the 20th Century, and a few small urban settlements evolved with the beginning of the collieries. Most of these colliery towns are mono-functional and still insignificant in population size.
RITU RAJ KAUR AND ASHWANI LUTHRA AND VANSHUL
The higher education institutions act as role models for incorporating sustainable practices by adopting various development strategies and actions in the core activities such as teaching, research and community outreach as well as in other activities like spatial planning, management of physical growth and development, maintenance of buildings and open spaces, supply of electricity, water and other utilities, etc. These institutions play an important part in taking different sustainable initiatives. This paper attempts to benchmark and appraise the sustainability concerns based on the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs. The indicators of sustainability under physical and social pillars have been localised for the Guru Nanak Dev University Campus and the campus has been assessed based on the identified parameters.
ASHRAF PULIKKAMATH AND TINY S PALATHARA
Urbanisation is closely related to the three dimensions of development: economic, societal and environmental. There is a strong consensus that urbanisation is critically important to global development, but there is considerable confusion over what urbanisation actually is and how the ideas are to be conceived. Generally, urbanisation is tied up with economic and infrastructural advancement and thereby people preferred to stay at such places, resulting in large urban places, that we call metropolitan cities today. However, this idea need not hold true in all circumstances as there are other alternative models of urbanisation coming up. Kerala postulated a different model of urbanisation and it has now attracted the world by its urban agglomerations hitting the tag ‘world fastest growing’ in demographic terms. Therefore, the absence of polar urbanisation and the population-based urbanisation trend is the core of discussion in this paper. In addition, it compares the state patterns in urbanisation with those of metropolises in India.
YOGESH M. KESKAR AND BINAYAK CHOUDHURY AND NIKHIL RANJAN MANDAL
A house is essentially an expression of people’s way of life and culture. It is a symbol of pride, an identity of one’s social affiliation to different groups and communities. It is expected that a good - quality housing shall be responsive to a wide variety of human needs. Hence, the need of a house ought to be seen through the prism of both quantitative as well as qualitative attributes by the policymakers and providers of houses. Although literature on housing in India, nay of different countries is replete with different aspects of affordable housing, such as affordability of house, area, volume, amenities, location, household income, policy aspects of housing, etc. there has been no study so far to assess the Quality Standards for LIG Housing Projects in India or elsewhere. This study therefore seeks to identify the set of Housing Quality Indicators (HQIs) for quality assessment of LIG housing in India. It is expected that such an identification of HQIs would help assess housing quality either through a participatory process (comparing end users’ expectation and perception about the quality of housing) or by any independent organisation.
Urbanisation refers to an increase in the proportion or share of the population residing in urban areas as opposed to rural areas. It is growing faster in East Asia and Pacific regions. Consequently,
the city area of different states starts growing, which in return
has exerted great pressure on the existing urban infrastructure
like availability of water, transport system, health facilities and drainage system etc. The local government across the world plays an important role in providing basic services to the people,
but these institutions especially in developing countries face great challenges like rapid urbanisation, climate change among others.
POULOMEE GHOSH And PRATAP RAVAL
Mixed landuses are extensively promoted in the contemporary urban planning concepts and policies. In many cities like Pune, mixed landuse is a natural phenomenon existing without being
a regulatory compulsion. The form and extent to which different uses mix can vary extensively, giving rise to various mixed landuse types. It gives the opportunity to observe and research
the various types in which mixed landuses occur. This research, through literature review and field observations, has defined the mixed landuse typologies.
KARNIKA GUPTA And ISHU GARG
The concept of Smart Cities has remained in great hype in the whole world and literature emphasises that Smart Cities actually require Smart Citizens. So, this paper questions: whether or not Citizens are worthy of accommodating Smart Cities? Data of 300 citizens from Ambala Cantonment of Haryana State of India was collected on selected parameters of Smart Behaviour with certain socio-demographic attributes with the help of a questionnaire. With the analysis of data, two segments of citizens named sluggish and smart emerged based on citizens’ level of Smart Behaviour.
SNEH GUPTA And RAMBOOSHAN TIWARI
The COVID-19 pandemic had led to a significant surge in bio-medical waste (BMW). Due to the contagious nature of diseases,
the safe treatment and disposal of BMW became a significant challenge during the pandemic. The study entirely relies on secondary data and primarily focuses on the generation and management of BMW in Raipur city in the recent past. The study suggests that due to the countrywide lockdown, the amount of BMW initially decreased; however, it increased significantly when
the COVID-19 cases increased in the city.
KASUMURTHY POOJITHA And RAMESH O OLEKAR
Though the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act (CAA) gave autonomy to local governments, equivalent devolution of financial autonomy is absent. Municipal Finances in India are identified
by the mismatch between the funds and functions of local governments. The investment requirement of urban infrastructure over the years is increasing with the increase in population. Prior
to 1990, urban infrastructure was financed largely through grants and Plan funds of governments. After 1990, the concept
of municipal bonds has evolved. The present study focuses on the overview of municipal bonds in India, trends, process of issuing municipal bonds using secondary data. And it concludes that
the municipal bond market has grown drastically over the years.
K K PANDEY
The third quarter of current fiscal has witnessed specialmention on role of cities and urban area in the Amrit Mahotsav (75-100 years) of Independence at highest level of decision making. Hon’ble Prime Minister on 30th September emphasised, while inaugurating first phase of metro in Ahmedabad,that cities will shape India’s vision to become a developed nation in next 25 years. it was also indicated that cities need to be reorientedin a regular manner as per changing times. Twin cities should be developed. Further cities should be built in line with global business demand, Gati Shakti National Master Plan, Logistics Policy and focus on speed with e-vehicle policy.
The Chandni Chowk, one of the largest and oldest markets of the Walled City in Delhi is currently being remodelled by the Shahjahanabad Redevelopment Corporation (SRDC), the nodal agency executing the Chandni Chowk pedestrianisation and redevelopment project. Structure of this column flows from Shahjahanabad’s evolution from Mughal Empire to current Master Plan for Delhi-2021, constitution of SRDC and the status of Chandni Chowk pedestrianisation and redevelopment project.
Earlier people looked forward to monsoons- farmers in rural areas for their cropping and city dwellers for getting relief from sweltering heat. But now people living in the urban areas dread even the thought of it, as we are now witnessing cases of urban flooding across the country, year after year. The situation is worst in metros like Delhi, Mumbai or Chennai. Mumbai this year got 45% excess rainfall in July. Santa Cruz weather station of the India Meteorological Department (IMD) recorded 1244.6 mm of rain against the normal of 855.7 mm. In July 2021, the city had recorded 1122.6 mm of rain.1 Many parts of the city remained inundated in waist deep water, throwing city life out of gear.
AMIT KUMAR SINGH
Climate change is a global phenomenon with several ramifications, including sea level rise, increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and storms, air pollution and the spread of tropical diseases. Right now almost half of the world’s population lives in urban areas. They consumes three fourth of the energy production and account for almost equal share of global CO2 gas emissions. In case of India, urban areas contribute to nearly 44% of India’s carbon emissions, driven by transport, industry, building and waste1. Since, most of the cities are densely populated and located either in coastal or floodplain areas, rise in sea level or frequent floods have huge impacts on cities’ basic services, infrastructure, housing, human livelihoods and health. At the same time, most of the cities are dependent on distantly located water resources, even a small drought creates water crises for cities. The other consequences of climate change are urban heat island effect and air pollution which has increased the risk of health hazards in cities.
In 1966, Centre for Training and Research in Municipal Administration In 1966, Centre for Training and Research in Municipal Administration Health and Family Planning, Government of India, the then nodal ministry on urban local bodies. The Centre was created with specific objectives to operate as a knowledge centre and think tank on urban sector issues and an apex institution at national level. CTRMA was rechristened as CUS (Centre for Urban Studies) in 1974-75.
DIPAK MANDAL And S MANASI
This article discusses the role of civic groups in the protection and management of lakes in Bangalore. It explores the different activities of civic groups and how they help improve the city environment in lake management. Nowadays, civic groups play
a significant role in community interests where the ecology and environment are central concerns. In addition, this paper discusses how urban expansion has collected huge tolls from the lake environment and how civic groups form over a period to save
the lake environment. The paper also examines how the groups negotiate with the government and other agencies for policy change and the adaptation of sustainable practices to save the lake environment in the city.
SUKHVEEN KAUR And SAKSHI SAHNI
Urbanization leads to changes in the social, cultural, physical and environmental structure of cities, generating criminal elements
in cities. The higher the rate of urbanization, the higher will be
the crime rate of cities. The overall crime rate of India increased
by 3.4% from 2014 to 2015. In the case of Amritsar city, the registered crime rate in 2015 was 163.8 per lakh population. This paper attempts to understand the nexus of crime, landuse, population density, and vulnerability factors to identify vulnerable areas, crime hotspots, and crime rates. It aims to identify crime-prone public spaces for snatching and vehicle theft and suggests planning strategies to counter them. It provides an insight into crime prevention strategies from the perspective of a land use planner. Thus, the present paper provides a way forward to initiate
a potential partnership between the government, the police and spatial planners to work with communities to reduce crime in public spaces.
VAISHALI GIJRE And SEWA RAM
Road accidents have been a major safety issue and are causing a significant loss to the economy. To minimise this economic loss,
one needs to be able to assess the existing road safety scenario of
the public transport undertakings and plan safer bus routes in cities. Public transport whether road or rail based are considered
as the safest mode of travel for most people across the globe. In absence of a database at world level focusing only on traffic safety associated with buses, individual data sets/information has been presented in this paper from various countries from the developed
as well as from the developing parts of the world. The case of India and particularly the case of Delhi Transport Corporation
(DTC) which operates public transport buses in Delhi has been elaborated in this paper. In order to plan safe public transport routes in any city, it is important to understand the road safety scenario of public transit buses in the cities of urban India. Few Indian bus corporations operating in major metropolitan cities have been undertaken for this study. An attempt has been made to carry out a detailed spatial and temporal analysis of all the DTC
bus accidents, to understand the causes of accidents, the probable remedial solutions to avoid the crashes and the way forward.
DISHA PUJARA And SRIRAM DIVI
Major parts of India are moving towards urbanisation leading
to rise in population in cities, globalisation and increased motorisation. Rise in number of motor vehicles creates huge demand for parking in the cities, causing various problems like traffic congestions, pollution, etc. This paper focuses on review of parking policies for various Indian metro cities to understand the means adopted by such cities to deal with this emerging parking issue for our country at a policy level.
VRINDA PRAKASH And HARSHITA UPADHYAYA
A smart city is a new form of urban construction that has emerged gradually in the process of rapid urbanisation. The city of Ajmer
is among 100 cities to be created as a smart city in India and to fulfil this mission, various construction projects are going-on in various parts of the city. Therefore, the case of elevated road project sanctioned under the Smart City Mission has been taken up in this paper as the conversion of earth’s land surface to urban uses
is one of the most irreversible human impacts on the biosphere.
Architecture is a unique blend of technical, artistic, economic and socio-cultural developments. Spanning both art and science, it is closely linked with urbanism, ecology, micro-climate, environment, natural resources, water, energy and public health. According to RIBA Gold Medallist and Pritzker Award winner B. V. Doshi “we cannot look at architecture as merely a product because it is not what one calls a passive space, form or structure. Architecture is an extension of our body. It’s not outside of me, it is a part of me and we live within it. When you think it is part of yourself then the questions are the food you eat, the life you live, the people you meet and the world in which we live. It is an understanding of culture, aesthetics, climate and space. That’s how I understood Corbusier. He would talk about behaviour, attitudes and about climate. He spoke about the relationship between people and the building, about the space. And I think because of that my whole understanding of architecture is different”.
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Our Lead Story in this edition highlights the historic development in the National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building through Mission Karmayogi. As a training institute for government officials ourselves, we take pride in the Government’s momentous step that is destined to transform the capacity building apparatus at individual, institutional and process levels.
Jugal Mohapatra/ Siraj Hussain
Due to sudden lock down and resultant job losses, about 44 lakh people returned to their homes, some walking hundreds of miles, others using all conceivable means of transport - buses, trucks, trailers,
concrete mixers, Shramik trains, motorcycles, scooters, bicycles, auto rickshaws, cycle and trolly rickshaws and even boats. Many of them may be so upset psychologically with the travails they had to face that
they may choose not to return at all. A sizable number may take several months to return to the cities and towns
to earn a living.
It is important to recognise the importance of leadership roles Public Administrators have played in the Covid-19 pandemic. As an Institution, the Civil Services particularly the All India Services have always commanded considerable respect from the people of India. Such respect emanates from a perception that decisionmaking
would be neutral and unbiased and would enable the nation to achieve the objectives outlined in the Preamble of the Constitution. The 21st century has witnessed a significant expansion of the Civil Services
processes and responsibilities. Recruitment has become highly competitive, training norms more stringent, performance appraisal timely and constant evaluations have been introduced on the capacity of the civil servant to meet current challenges.
The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is a statutory body set up under the Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act (1956) under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME), Government of India. The KVIC is involved in production and marketing of ‘Khadi- a handspun and hand-woven fabric’ made in an eco-friendly manner earning carbon credits for the country and saving huge
amount of water, which is getting scarce each passing day.
Surendra Nath Tripathi/Ashok Vishandass
Indian agriculture is akin to the huge aeroplane without fuel. Can it fly? At one level, India’s agri-strategy has been successful in the sense that the country moved from import-dependence to self-sufficiency and
then to a net food exporting country. After feeding 1.35 billion people, at another level, farmers’ income levels have not augmented commensurately. Implicit in the agri-strategy was that the benefits of increased production and productivity would percolate down to the welfare of farmers. However, the strategy by-passed their income levels, primarily because the requisite ‘fuel’ has been missing in our agriculture. ‘Getting the prices right’ and ‘getting the markets right’ together constitute the requisite ‘fuel’ which has the potential to take our agriculture to new heights.
Lt Gen Abhay Krishna
In the year 1913, the United Kingdom (UK), China and Tibet met at Shimla to sign an agreement on the alignment of the international boundary as per the map produced by the Foreign Department of British India. Though China was the one to initiate the proposal, later they backed off citing ambiguities and technical reasons. Henry McMahon, the Foreign Secretary, who had drawn up the proposal, then decided to bypass the Chinese and settle British India’s Himalayan border bilaterally by negotiating directly with Tibet. China, however, rejected Tibet’s claim of independent rule and maintained that the said treaty had no sanctity without China’s endorsement.
Rishika Singh/Geethanjali Nataraj
The global pandemic has wreaked havoc on the world economy and India has unfortunately been one of the worst affected countries right behind the United States. Only last year India was one of the fastest
growing emerging economies targeting to become a dollar five trillion economy. But since the onset of the pandemic, the economy suffered a staggering contraction in first quarter during 2020. The depressing
figure of 23.9 per cent is a major alteration in India’s growth path whose average is at 6.8 per cent. As economic activity across spectrum of sectors has grinded to a halt, negative growth rate has spurred. Even as government expenditure as a share of GDP went up from 11 per cent to 18 per cent, the economy could not be rescued
from an expected seven per cent overall contraction, estranged from an average positive growth of seven per cent since delicensing. Infact, the GDP growth this financial year is expected to be the worst post- World War II.
Amit Kumar Singh
The effectiveness of the governance is crucial to the development of country and every well-governed country needs a highly professional civil service to meet the needs of public policy formulation and
public management. Several countries have recognized this need and invested significant resources in upgrading the quality of their public service personnel. In India, the civil service system is the backbone of
the government machinery. The civil servants play an extremely important role in the administration, policy formulation, implementation and in taking the country forward towards progress and development. They perform their functions and duties through a number of Central and state government Ministries, departments and organisations in accordance with the policy directions given by the respective governments.
Sapna Chadah/Varuni B.R.
The Essential Commodities Act (ECA), 1955 was enacted with an objective to control the production, supply and distribution of, and trade and commerce in certain goods such as vegetables, pulses, edible oils, sugar, etc., which are treated as essential commodities. The purported aim of this Act is to ensure affordability of essential commodities for the poor by restricting hoarding. It is an overarching legislation regulating agricultural marketing and production. There is no exhaustive list of what all commodities are essential.
Partha Pratim Mitra
The coal mining industry in India which is spread mainly in eastern and central India engages about 5.6 lakh workers on a daily basis. There can be no doubt that the safety of these workers, who work under difficult ground conditions, is extremely important. Our main contention is that it is possible to introduce an approach of risk assessment as an
important component of safety and risk management. In doing so it would also not be advisable to discontinue the existing prescriptive safety approach given in the statutes and the various mine regulations that have been evolved over a period of time. Risk assessment
would, therefore, be an additional layer of mines’ safety and the complete transition to this approach will have to be planned carefully.
Globalization emerged as an aspiration for integrating world into a global village, and subsequently transformed the economic, political and cultural dimensions of the world. However, it witnessed a serious blow in the time of Covid-19 pandemic. The Covid-19 pandemic exposed the vulnerabilities of a globalized world. Pandemic compelled countries to impose restrictions on international travel, foreign investment, export of medical supplies and disrupted the global supply chain. It led to a new wave of protectionism, self-reliance and nationalism. But to deal with this crisis and prepare ourselves for post-Covid world, a globalized response is the way forward.
Advancements in ICTs have heightened the potential of such technology to automate jobs en masse. Realistically, however, concern revolves not around redundancy of labour, but the polarising effect automation exerts on jobs. Job polarisation widens wage disparity, lowers the aggregate skill level of labour, and exacerbates existing social inequalities. Proponents of laissezfaire automation argue that while automation may exert adverse effects on labour in the short run,
it is bound to realise higher net benefits and employment in the long run due to the increased efficiency it entails. However, world over and in India, firms have been merely substituting labour with capital, sans efficiency gains. This trend is only set to worsen with the ongoing health crisis due to varied reasons. In such a situation, it becomes imperative to enable labour mobility, design novel methods of social security, and incentivise retention and continuance of labour engagement.
The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India sternly reprimanded the Maharashtra government on November 11, 2020 for illegally confining Mr Arnab Goswami into jail and also criticised the Bombay High Court in not granting bail to him. In fact, he has been suffering the vicious course of vendetta politics for the past many months for launching a vigorous crusade against unimaginable corruption in public places with a view to strengthen democracy and rule of law in the country. In this scenario, one can easily remember the wisdom of George Orwell as reflected in his memorable words: ‘Ours is an age of democracy.’
With a view to ensure complete eradication of illiteracy in India, the Government of India has recently launched a scheme for adult education in India – Padhna Likhna Abhiyan. The scheme initiated by the Department of School Education & Literacy under the Ministry of Human Resource Development now Ministry of Education, Government of India, focuses on providing basic literacy in its initial stage.
Mithila Urmila Bagai
The paper explores various reasons for the demise of Sanskrit language that is left with only 24 thousand speakers. The research also states the significant reasons for allocating more central funds to Sanskrit in comparison to other classical languages.
H.E. Hon’ble Barry O’Farrell AO
H.E. Hon’ble Barry O’Farrell AO is Australia’s High Commissioner to India. This writeup is his commentary
delivered during the 46th Digital APPPA Participants on ‘The Indian Diaspora and the Australia-India Partnership’
dated January 29, 2021 coordinated by IIPA Faculty, Gadadhara Mohapatra.
This paper is a temporal case study of the Shilpa Gurukula, an art school for stone and wood carving
and a creation of Cauvery Handicrafts, a government-owned corporation. It follows the evolution of the
school since its conception in 2009 until the present day, analyzing its history, challenges, constraints
Classical Indian dance forms have existed and evolved over centuries facing each challenge to its very existence and structure. But classical artists are often unrecognised entrepreneurs. While recognition continues to be their primary dream, creating a successful ‘business’ is often an elusive dream. And the year 2020-21 shut more doors for these entrepreneurs. With no other option but to go online, artists face innumerable obstacles due to the very nature of the art form.
The Chair named “Baba Saheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Chair in Social Justice” has been instituted at the Indian Institute of Public Administration – a premier National Institute of Public Administration in the year 2004. Since then, a number of quality publications, value adding workshops and courses have been conducted under the Chair. This Chair has a special role in providing inputs for policy formulation and governance besides sensitizing the Administration.
Pushpender Yadav/Divya Shrivastava
Child sexual abuse is a universally condemned offence against children. Consequences of sexual abuse are very severe and they deeply affect the physical and mental state of victims for a long time. Aftermath outcomes of the abuse are extremely painful because it disrupts the self esteem as well as physical and mental order of the victim child. It is essential to keep children safe by a collective effort of family, society and government.
Globally, the situation is alarming as the number of Corona Virus infected persons and the death toll is gradually increasing. In this backdrop, on 26th March, 2020 the Union Finance & Corporate Affairs Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced Rs. 1.70 lakh crore, an economic package for the poor to overcome the crisis situation during the lockdown period. The scheme is called as Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY) aiming to address the food and financial related difficulties of the poor people.
In this paper, modern-day righteous management behaviour in an ennoble form is considered as constellation of upanishadik values, a few thoughts from īśāvāsya upanishad are meaningfully explored in that context. In other words, lessons from Indian philosophy of īśāvāsya upanishad ought to be taught in modern-day management, especially under Business Ethics; and practiced in corporate lives to purify working environment; working selves at the helm of affairs, i.e. CEOs to achieve sustainable growth at an individual, corporate and social level.
In the year 1970, a young Indian aged around 30 years while entering India Office at London saw an Englishman standing at the entrance. He walked up to the Englishman and after a few necessary words remarked, “I think I have seen you somewhere. You seem to be known to me.” The Englishman replied with a smile, “It is very much possible that you have seen me earlier. After all, I was India’s last Viceroy.” The anecdote of meeting with Lord Mountbatten was often humourously narrated by the legendary figure in Political Science, Asok Kumar Mukhopadhyay.
Atomic Energy Establishment was renamed Bhabha Atomic Research Centre to commemorate Homi Bhabha who died in 1966 in an air crash. Homi Bhabha was a physicist. Dirac, the Nobel Prize Winner, was Bhabha’s friend and teacher. Homi Bhabha was also nominated for Nobel Prize but unfortunately he did not get it. According to his father’s wishes he did engineering in England but he told his father thereafter that his line was physics and not engineering.
In a bid to save the nation from the water crisis, the Central Government has recently launched a programme to conserve water. With a core focus on water conservation and rainwater harvesting, the Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain (JSA:CTR) initiative is one such approach of the government to save water. The initiative is a collaborative effort of National Water Mission, Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan and Ministry of Jal Shakti.
In the annals of human civilization, the 6th Century BC was the most attractive and remarkable one. In this century alone the Greek Philosopher and Mathematician, Pythagoras; Gautam Buddha,
the founder of Buddhism; Vardhman Mahavir, the exponent of Jainism and the Chinese political thinker and philosopher Confucius appeared on this earth almost at the same time, who had made profound, indelible contribution over man’s socio-political, ethical, and religious life past 2500 years. Among those great men, the visit of the Lord Buddha to this planet was, by any scale, glorious and virtuous indeed.
Climate change is a global problem, one that cannot be solved by any one nation or state actor alone. By learning from the failures of recent international climate change action, specifically the failures of the Paris Accord, and best practices of collaborative governance, we recommend creating a Collaborative Governance Regime (CGR) at the level of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The proposed CGR will differ from the Paris Accord, most notably: (i) focus on key actor nations representing the largest CO2 emitters (to the tune of 64% of the total emissions)(China, United States, India, European Union, Russian Federation and Japan), as opposed to the full international community; (ii) focus on one specific facet of climate change, CO2 emissions, as opposed to the entire scope of contributing factors to climate change; (iii) increased emphasis on collaboration for ambitious, yet realistic goals, and finally; (iv) increased emphasis on sanctioning to prevent any unilateral withdrawal undermining the collective spirit. In this backdrop, the role of India in terms of the Paris Accord is quite significant. India being one of the leading contributors to the greenhouse gases including CO2, also has made rapid strides in utilizing renewable sources of energy in pretty quick time. Further, India has an important role to play in the geopolitics and climate sustainability of the South Asian region as a key driver.
Raju Narayana Swamy
I ntermediaries are gateways to the internet- services enabling delivery of online content to the end user. The various players involved in the chain range from ISPs ( Internet Service Providers like Airtel that help users to get connected to the net by means of wired/wireless connections), search engines ( the most commonly used ones in India being Google Search, Yahoo Search, Microsoft Bing and Duck Duck Go), DNS providers ( that translate domain names to addresses that can be understood by computers), web hosts, interactive websites ( which include social media sites like Facebook and Twitter) and even cyber cafes. The ambit of the term is wide enough to include any website that facilitates and brings together two interest groups (such as retailers and consumers in an online shopping mall), carriers of information (a classic example being Gmail service) as well as payment gateways (PayPal and Pay Tm to name a few). To be specific, Section 2(1) (w) of the IT Act, 2000 defines intermediary as “any person who on behalf of another person receives, stores or transmits that record or provides any service with respect to electronic record........”
I IPA is an autonomous academic institution of national eminence for training, research and information dissemination in streams related to the ethos of Public Administration. Conceived by well-known US expert Paul H. Appleby and Founded and promoted by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, it is now known internationally as a premier centre for Training and Research in Public Administration and Management. Public Administration has always implied Government when ‘public’ actually means community or people. In the post-colonial, post-independence paradigm of the early 1950s, Public Administration really meant providing service to the people by the State apparatus using the ground rules of justice, ethics and fair-play. This was the intention of the visionary Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru when he established the Indian Institute of Public Administration on March 29, 1954 based on the recommendations of a survey carried out in 1953 by Prof. Paul H. Appleby, Dean, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University and a Consultant with the Ford Foundation invited to advice on the subject by the Government of India. As India globalises under growing media glare, her administration and governance have to change with the times and respond to the high expectations of a society where the demographic pre-ponderance of youth, the increasing struggles of urban and rural India, the development-sustainability conflict and the continuing problems of poverty related malnutrition together throw up challenges that require great resilience in administration and delivery. IIPA takes the reality of Governance in transition into consideration in all its skill-development, research and knowledge management activities
This article presents an analysis of ‘systemic loops’ in regulatory mechanisms during public health emergency, i.e. COVID-19 second wave. This ‘once in a century crisis’ has highlighted regulatory lapses and oversight in the functioning of the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA). Taking specific case for oximeter, this article analyses that how the manufacturers and retailers used regulatory lapses for profiteering, rendering orders useless, toothless and ineffective, issued by National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA). Moreover, this underlines the problems in MRP regime and over reliance of regulator to depend on MRP as a key tool to regulate the prices. The later section of the article deals with the Drug Price Control Order, 2013 and powers provided by it to the NPPA- to take necessary measures to carry out its functions; ensuring quality, availability and affordability of the drugs. It also provides for viable alternatives to determine the prices using integration of data. The last part of article talks about possible impact of these regulatory lapses on income levels of lower-middle income groups and vulnerable sections of the society aggravating socio-economic inequity
Prakash Chand Kandpal
The Covid-19 pandemic has adversely hit India and the whole world. The human cost of the corona virus is expected to be unimaginably high. The pandemic has shattered lives of millions of people across the world. The pandemic has also posed another challenge to the policy makers in India. Due to the lockdown and non-availability of means of livelihood in cities, millions of people were forced to return to their villages and native states. The panic situation triggered a massive reverse migration from the “urban” to “rural” areas in large parts of the country. The pandemic posed a challenge to the policymakers to create livelihood opportunities in the regions which have experienced huge in-migration.
Kartik Shrinivas Kamepalli
This paper reviews the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak management in India by exploring the combination of scientific, political, public, and media responses. A lack of coordination between lawmakers and governing bodies, institutional claim-makers, and the media, between scientific and political levels suggests broader mismanagement of the Covid crisis during the second phase of the outbreak. Unless strict action is taken to combat this crisis millions of lives across the world are threatened. Many policymakers are facing a critical time as SARS-CoV-2 is slowly affecting the millions in the countryside. Despite the prolonged warnings from researchers and medical experts, decision makers are not taking things as grave as they have been predicted. This paper contributes towards informing lawmakers on significant lessons learned from the management of the SARSCoV-2 in the second-most populous country in the world.
Shiv Prakash Katiyar
The case study describes the nature of global COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has affected all the sectors i.e. economic, social, psychological, health, technological, business, medical and environmental but the case study focuses on health impact of COVID-19 pandemic in India. The methodology used is review methodology. The case study makes use of secondary literature collected from various research papers, annual reports, magazines, journals and websites. Furthermore, the case study reveals that COVID-19 pandemic has impacted health sector adversely. It also offers various suggestions for addressing the negative impacts on health sector due to COVID-19 pandemic
Geethanjali Nataraj/Nityasree Muralitharan
Medical Tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors in the Indian economy and the country is recognised as a global medical tourism hub. It is an industry where people travel to other countries to get medical, dental and surgical care while also enjoying the local tourist attractions. High quality healthcare at a low cost makes India a medical tourism destination. Complicated and high-cost surgeries especially heart surgeries, organ transplants and advanced cancer surgeries can be done at a much cheaper cost as compared to the US and the UK at India’s best hospitals. In lieu of the above, in recent years, India has become a popular destination for foreign tourists seeking the quality treatment at a cheaper price. With further investments in building infrastructure, technology and services and by ensuring a seamless experience for international patients, this sector has the potential to become a leading foreign exchange earner for the country and has the potential to be integrated into a much larger tourism eco-system.
Sanjay Kumar Singh
The journey to smart cities goes way back to the 1970s, when Los Angeles created the first urban big data project: ‘A Cluster Analysis of Los Angeles’. The first smart city was arguably Amsterdam with the creation of a virtual digital city in 1994. Things then speeded up in mid-2000s when IBM and Cisco launched separate initiatives. In 2011, the inaugural Smart City Expo World Congress was held in Barcelona, which has now become an annual event charting smart cities’ development. — (Global Data Thematic Research, 28th February 2020). However, the scenario in India was a little different
Even after gaining Swaraj in 1947, why higher civil services in India are seen as a class apart from the common citizens? Why barring a few ‘conscientious’ public servants the large swathe is brimming with condescending and boorish vibes for fellow citizens? Why ICS which was transplanted as IAS in the politico-administrative structure of India amidst great stonewalling failed to strike a chord with the populace? When it was transplanted as IAS in independent India it successfully served the formative decades of nation-building till it was anchored by the dyed-in-the-wool Gandhians till the late 1960s. Later on, except for the ‘conscientious’ civil servants with the exemplary contribution to public service, the imperious and condescending conduct of some members towards the citizens of India (in whom constitutionally the ultimate sovereignty resides) leaves a lot to be desired. It is high time to undertake radical reforms in ‘the bureaucracy with an effusive colonial hangover’. This is indispensable to tailor it to be an enduring vector of public spirit in the omnibus body of public services in India.
Praveen Kumari Singh/Trishaljit Sethi
‘Whistleblowing’ is an act of disclosing information by an employee or any concerned stakeholder about an illegal or unethical conduct or malpractice within the organization. It is a very important tool for Vigilance and other law enforcement authorities to check and prevent wrongdoings.
Surabhi Pandey/ Munisha Chauhan/ Ayush Negi
The term “cyberspace” refers to the virtual space created by interconnected computers and computer networks on the Internet. However, given the vast reach it withholds, the networks also get exposed to increasing number of risks. Over the last decade, the cyber intrusions and attacks have increased tremendously causing high implications and repercussions in terms of breach of sensitive personal and business information, disruptions of critical operations, and imposing high costs on the economy of many countries. This highlights the importance of cyber security measures in the current times.
This article proposes a novel strategy to involve the Corporate Sector in India’s fight against child malnutrition. The Corporate Sector, whose tremendous potential is hardly harnessed in this grand enterprise, can be effectively put to use with certain readjustments at the policy level. The entire theorization is premised upon an in-situ case study conducted by the author in the capacity of a Government official. The author has endeavoured to join the concepts of Child Malnutrition, Corporate Social Responsibility, Shared Value and the amended version of the Companies’ Act, 2013 into a coherent whole in order to prescribe an effective stratagem to combat Child Malnutrition in India.
Vijaya Krushna Varma
T he simple answer to this question is a minimum of 10 years away and that is only if the government spends at least Rs 2,00,000 crores per annum from now. When the problem becomes colossal due to neglect, non-planned development, and non-cognizance of it for a longer period, it requires a lot of time, money and perseverance to solve it. The aim of the Mission Swachh Bharat is to spread cleanliness everywhere encompassing everything - roads, railway tracks, bus stations, railway stations, parks, beaches, shorelines, river banks, reservoirs, lakes, schools, colleges, universities and all other public places. 100% absolute cleanliness can be achieved only by the strong will of the government combined with people’s participation and their strong desire to keep their country perfectly clean at all times throughout the year. Swachh Bharat campaign cannot be successful by one day’s work of sweeping some streets somewhere, 5-minute token gestures by celebrities, campaigning on TVs and newspapers, and, most importantly, without proper planning, efficient mechanism, perfect execution and monitoring system developed for the entire country. Swachh Bharat mission requires a huge network of workforce, basic infrastructure, consummate planning, tough laws and efficient monitoring at all levels. Swachh Bharat should also become evergreen Bharat to make it healthy Bharat. Clean and green India = Healthy India.
With a vision of building a new self-reliant India- Atmanirbhar Bharat, the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi inaugurated the Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav — to commemorate the 75 years of Independence.
he plan, Aatamnirbhar intends to encourage and promote people to become self-reliant in almost every sector only then we will be able to fulfil our needs. In fact, dependence was never there in our culture. The vision of Self-reliant India is not new but from the classical point of view since ancient times as we have given priority to karma over luck. As Lord Krishna says in the 48th verse of the second chapter of the Bhagvat Geeta:
The pandemic has effectively revived and strengthened the federal spirit in India’s response to the health crisis. The concerted effort by the Union and state governments respectively have been applauded by the United Nations and the World Health Organization. The post-lockdown measures have been successful to the extent of being appreciated by the International Monetary Fund in terms of India’s economic recovery. The cooperative and coordinated Centre-state approach towards the Covid-19 vaccination also demands appreciation. On the whole the pandemic has regenerated cooperative federalism in India with promise of collaborative governance in the future.
Surabhi Pandey/Yumna Jamal
Over the last decade, the cyber intrusions and attacks have increased tremendously causing high implications and repercussions in terms of breach of sensitive personal and business information, disruptions of critical operations, and imposing high costs on the economy of our country
It is a common observation that during the recent past, the intensity and frequency of forest fires have increased at an alarming rate globally. Forest fires created havoc and devastated huge forests and other property across the world over the past few years. The huge fire in Australian forests spanning 2019-20 captured world attention, due to the killing of a large number of wild animals. During the early phase of the first wave of COVID-19, fires burned large forest tracts in Colorado and Arizona. Boreal and Tundra forests in Siberia also witnessed large forest fires in the recent past.
nformation dissemination today has no substitute since it has been co-related with the people’s right, especially when the human rights discourse is seen in conjunction with transparency and accountability and has placed the discourse on RTI in inescapable space. Lacking on implementation front, the institution needs to bring in practice- innovation. It is the responsibility of the state to setup the sound monitoring mechanism to optimise implementation. Functioning since 1993, the idea of decentralisation in India, could have proved revolutionary, had it been equipped with better monitoring mechanism, which is not possible without transmitting appropriate information to the next level.
October - December 2021
In this edition we have one article on Governance in the lap of Himalayas and another casestudy on District Good Governance Index Framework – J&K which are on the similar lines. There is another engaging piece on the same theme which talks about the Efficient and Effective Administration – Key element of Good Governance.
O ver the last few years the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions under the central government has brought several administrative reforms to encourage greater efficiency, transparency and accountability in the system. This in turn has led to a beginning and a launch of several reformative mechanism to tackle the concept of corruption and discretion in the governance process.
C ivil Military relationship in India has been the subject of intensive analysis and discussion in India specially after Independence. Usually the topic is taken to mean the interaction between the civilian bureaucracy in the Ministry of Defence and the Military establishment. But in its broader sense it includes the civilian Ministers /State Ministers heading the Ministry of Defence also. With the creation of a separate Department of Military Affairs under the Chief of Defence Staff, the interaction between the Military and the civil bureaucracy in the Defence Ministry has substantially reduced. However why does this acrimony between the two verticals still remain? For this we will have to go back a bit in history
Raju Sitaram Nandkar
W hether it were the kings of ancient times or the sovereign nations working within the framework laid down by the constitution in the present times, the system of governance is considered to be a necessary and essential element to govern the state. The basic duties of the administrative system are to implement the policies of the government within the framework of laws and regulations. In general, the administrative system has a hierarchy and the functions and duties of everyone working in this hierarchy are assigned. The people working in this system are working on terms and conditions of service and there is uniformity in their work. In general, we see a straight slope from class one to class four in the administrative system. This slope is like a pyramid. The success of the government and the overall development process depends on how efficiently and effectively the administration implements its policies, plans and programmes.
Sh.V.Srinivas/Sh.Saurabh Bhagat/Dr.Reva Sharma/Dr.Shabbeer Shaikh
I ndia is transforming at a faster rate and embracing change both in policy and economic outlook faster than other comparable nations. The outcome of several reforms over the past two and half decades has shown a remarkable transformation of India from a largely closed and listless economy to an open and thriving economy. The country’s progress is not only qualitative but measurable as well. With economic data projecting India to be one of the fastest growing economies and reaching the horizon of being the second biggest economy by 2030, faster than imagined, there are definitive indices that measure and give the assessment of India’s economic growth and potential. It argued that it has clear linkage with the adopted governance model.
G reat things happen when men and mountains meet. The mountains held an irresistible attraction for me. They represent the impossible challenges, insurmountable obstacles that dare to be summited. These perilous yet majestic landforms continue to hold a position of awe and wonderment in our lives. Ed Bernbaum, wrote a book published by the University of California Press some 20 years ago, entitled, ‘Sacred Mountains of the World’. In it he explains that people have traditionally revered mountains as places of sacred power and spiritual attainment and writes that “The ethereal rise of a ridge in mist, the glint of moonlight on an icy face, a flare of gold on a distant peak – such glimpses of transcendent beauty can reveal our world as a place of unimaginable mystery and splendor. In the fierce play of natural elements that swirl about their summits – thunder, lighting, wind, and clouds – mountains also embody powerful forces beyond our control, physical expressions of an awesome reality that can overwhelm us with feelings of wonder and fear.”
I ndian civil services are entrusted with the responsibility of bringing a social change in the country. Every administrative decision and action of the civil servants will impact the lives of millions of people in India. If these bureaucrats are not competent and calibrated to deal with changing needs of the people, the progress India achieved in its socio-economic arena will be endangered and policy paralysis will also creep in. Mission Karmayogi is an initiative which is intended to modernise civil servants thinking, build and strengthen their competencies. This hints a grand vision of New India which will be a shared destiny of every Indian to live in a nation which is transparent, peaceful and free from inequalities, and corruption.
Bimal Prasad Singh
This paper presents the strong relationship between decisions and leadership styles. Styles of decision-making concern leadership techniques and institutions. This study examines the essential method to understand leadership decision-making in management and organizational activities. The objective of this study is to provide leaders and managers the best possible method to understand the Leadership Decision-making Process (LDMP). In the small and big organizations, leadership and styles have important impacts. This style applies to all seniors and new managers. In addition, leadership can influence the decision-making style and capabilities of the management, a fundamental characteristic of the function of nurses in organizations of healthcare.
Manish Kumar Tiwary
The Indian Constitution has provided adequate protection to the Permanent Government, especially the All India Services, to work properly without any undue pressure and influence. But recently, premature retirement of the All India Services’ officers has adversely affected the functioning of the officers in discharging their statutory duties. As the father of the All India Services, Sardar Patel termed the All India Services as the “steel frame of India,” and this change will alter the very essence of his ideal. This article seeks to examine the impact of premature retirement with the help of examples. Also, the paper will relook at the Constitutional Protection to the All India Services officers in detail and try to bring the synergy between autonomy and accountability.
T he case study is an attempt to creatively raise social issues of concern. The role of ‘The Jack The Jockey and The Celebrity’ is very efficiently and differently discussed to bring about a ‘Social Change’ in India and the World at large. The case writer’s generous in-kind donation, the lyrics titled, ‘I Am The World’, makes for a stimulating anthem to assist the patients undergoing ‘The Donkey Assisted Therapy’ for cognitive rewiring. The case study also qualifies for ‘A Real World Impact’ on various Academia, Legal and Social aspects as discussed in The Teaching Notes.
In March of this year, the Institute organised a three-day event in which Hon’ble Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology; Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences; MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space and Chairman of IIPA Executive Council Dr Jitendra Singh addressed the participants from Jammu and Kashmir.
The bureaucracy in India is often criticised, and not wrongly so, for its insular and inflexible outlook. The other prominent groups in society including politicians, professionals and businessmen have conveniently used this criticism to deflect the blame on to the bureaucracy for any sub-optimality in our efforts for development and progress while masking their own failings in the process. Admittedly, society is an organic entity and all its constituent groups, classes and individuals must perform their duties diligently while making claims on its resources to sustain a healthy collective life. Such an effort requires re-evaluation and recalibration on the part of power holders, whether groups or individuals, from time to time so as to align their actions in the pursuit of nation building. ‘Bureaucracy’ is only one powerful group in the spectrum and by no means an omnipotent one. Being part of the system of public administration, its performance takes shape in response to the events and happenings in the wider political environment. Nevertheless, it too requires soul searching as to what has gone wrong and how the situation can be improved. In this context, the recent launch of National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB) with an aim to professionalise the bureaucracy to meet our developmental needs in future brings a wave of fresh air.
It was for the fourth time in a row during the Union Budget 2022-23 that the significantly evolved Outcome Budget document (Output-Outcome Framework) became a part of the budget documents tabled in the Parliament. This marks an important milestone in the paradigm shift brought about in institutionalizing outcomes-based governance in India.
For the context, Outcome budget document represents a promise by the executive to the legislative in terms of the key outcomes to be achieved through the major developmental expenditure proposed to be conducted by the central government’s line ministries & departments in the form of Central Sector (CS) and Centrally Sponsored schemes (CSS). This constitutes about 44% of the Central Government’s expenditure budget. It lays down, in a crisp manner, for all the CS & CSS schemes with FY 2022-23 budgeted expenditure above Rs. 500 Cr. (which constitutes more than 95% of the total CS & CSS budget for the year since large number of CS & CSS schemes have budgets less than Rs. 500 Cr), clearly defined Outputs, Outcomes with their measurable indicators and targets for the financial year. The same for CS and CSS schemes with FY 22-23 budget below Rs. 500 Cr. will be presented in the Parliament along with the detailed demand for grants during the Budget session. These Outlays, Outputs and Outcomes are being presented to the Parliament in measurable terms, bringing-in greater accountability for the agencies involved in the execution of government schemes and projects. Outlay is the amount that is provided for a given scheme or project in the Budget; while Output refers to the direct and measurable product of program activities, often expressed in physical terms or units. Outcome are the collective results or qualitative improvements brought about in the delivery of these services, often expressed in terms of improvements over ex-ante or earlier indicators and benchmarks. Progress against each Output and Outcome is tracked using a measurable indicator for which targets are set in line with the allocated outlays as a part of the Budget and progress is reported subsequently during the year.
Dr Amitabh Rajan
The current Russian war to occupy Ukraine reminds us of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia and Poland and how it unfurled the Second World War. No wonder Nations today and their people are condemning such an advance that might lead us to the next Big War.
In a landmark judgment delivered on the 24th of August 2017, now popularly known as the Puttaswamy judgement, a 9 judge bench unanimously ruled that every citizen of India had a fundamental right to privacy which was guaranteed by the Constitution of India within Article 21 in particular and Part III on the whole.
Vivek K. Agnihotri
On 17 February 2022 the Supreme Court set aside the Punjab and Haryana High Court order staying the controversial law of the government of Haryana providing for 75% reservation for the local youth in private sector jobs paying less than `30,000 a month. The Court observed that the High Court had not given sufficient reasons for stopping the Haryana law in its tracks on February 3. Without going into the merits of the matter, the Court ordered that the High Court should decide the petition before it expeditiously and not later than a period of four weeks. At the same time the Court directed the state government not to take any “coercive steps” against employers for violating the Haryana State Employment of Local Candidates Act, 2020.
Dr. Agarala Eswara Reddi was born on 28th December 1933 as a second son of Late Sri A. Venkata Subba Reddy and Smt. Mangamma at Thukivakam village of Renigunta (Mandal) of Chittoor district. He holds three M.A. Degrees in Humanities and on the advice of his father; he entered in the public life. Initially he was elected by the people of his village as ‘Sarpanch’ (G.P. President) and reached the highest position of Speaker of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Dr. Reddi was a dynamic and committed leader. As a dynamic leader initially he chose to enter the administrative services. When he didn’t get into it, he tried for other jobs, but he didn’t secure suitable job. Later, he chose the ‘politics’ as a profession and continued in it whether he gets a position or not. However, he secured the highest position in the legislative system by moving from Swatantra Party to Congress party. He conducted the House with dignity, decency and decorum for the span of a period of three years i.e., 1979-1983. In 1982 Assembly Elections, Dr. Reddi was set up as a candidate to oppose the matinee idol, Sri N. T. Rama Rao, who was a founder President of Telugu Desam Party and he lost the election. Though he was promised by the High command of the party that he would be accommodated in a suitable position either in the state or centre, but it was failed to keep up its promise. As a committed leader, he served the society and people by establishing educational institutions, writing articles to the newspapers, magazines and publishing books of varied importance. In this paper, an attempt is made to present a brief sketch about Dr. Agarala Ewara Reddi, his education, aspirations, disappointments, accomplishments and the life learning’s. His unique qualities are also described at the end.
Dr Praveen Kumari Singh / Trishaljit Sethi
Gender inequality continues to remain a major barrier to human development. Women and girls are continued to be discriminated against in provision of basic facilities like health, nutrition, education, etc. This discrimination mani-fests later by way of their lesser involvement in economic activities, labour force participation as well as in political representation. This has serious negative consequences not only for the development of the capabilities of women, but also for the progress and development of the world as a whole.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognized the contribution of India’s 1 million Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) during the Covid-19 pandemic. It is acknowledged that ASHAs facilitate linking households to health facilities, and play pivotal roles in house-to-house surveys, vaccination, public health and Reproductive and Child Health measures.
Shri Bharat Lal
On this occasion, I would also like to pay my homage to the founder of this 105-year-old institution, who did a great service to humanity and future generations. So, my sincere gratitude goes to the founder of this institution His Highness 7th Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan. It was his foresight, his vision that today, Osmania University, the seventh oldest University in India continues to produce several great human minds ever since its inception.
If someone has to learn about leadership or has to build a leadership development programme, they must come here to get insights from this institution. I am indeed intrigued by the fact that so many leaders have come out of this place in so many walks of life. I think it would be a great experience and learning to dive into its rich past and present. I am sure Telangana as well as the people sitting here must be very proud of this fact. And I am sure that many of our future leaders are already sitting here, and in the coming years, we will witness brilliance flourishing from this university.
Dr. Sarita Mishra Kolhe
The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) programme contributed to India’s efforts to achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The economic and social im-
pacts of PMGSY have been significant and substantial for enabling the stakeholders in terms of better opportunities and sustainable development in India.
R V Upadhyay
The raging unemployment crescendo in contemporary India is attributed to the systemic lack of industrial jobs in the manufacturing sector. Some Eurocentric scholars regard Hindu socio-cultural values, institutions and clergy (Brah-mins) as anathema to economic and industrial development. If it is so then how did India a millennium back in 1000 AD as the Golden Bird had a share of about 30%1 in World GDP* that dwindled to 4.2% *on India’s Independence? Did India fail to take policy leaf out from the ancient India Statecraft for creating a conducive ecosystem for ‘mass manufacturing jobs’ in modern India?
This paper throws light on the concept of Independent India’s Foreign Policy, its objectives and the challenges posed by Covid-19 on its bilateral, multilateral and strategic relation vis-a-vis its next door neighbors as well as other nations. It has been witnessed how India has suffered during the pandemic right form economic contraction due to lockdown, supply of medical equipment’s, vaccine diplomacy, border (Galwan) issue and non-traditional threats dur-ing and post pandemic. This paper further suggests a way forward with which we can partially address and device a dynamic and global strategy to counter the traditional and non-traditional challenges faced by India’s international relations vis-a-vis foreign policy, where “India, that is Bharat” as a largest democracy in the world plays a role of a constructive, result-oriented and a rule abiding nation with a pragmatic and a reformed multilateralism approach.
Dr. Suresh Vadranam / Jayaprada Sahoo
The word ‘decentralization’, literally means ‘away from centre’. Decentralization of author-ity means dispersal of decision-making power to the lower levels of organization (B.L.Fadia and Kuldeep Fadia, 2010. The locus of decision making is transferred from Central govern-ments to regional, municipal or local govern-ments (Elizabeth Linda Yuliani, 2004). Decentralization cannot be easily deﬁned and it has many forms and dimensions. Decentralization is the process of redistributing or dispersing func-tions, powers, people or things away from cen-tral location or authority. There is no common deﬁnition of decentralization and its meaning varies because of the different ways it is applied. The concept of decentralization has been applied to management science, in private businesses and organizations, Political Science, Law and Public Administra-tion, Economics and Technology.
Manish Kumar Tiwary
National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB) –Karmayogi is an important programme for the civil servants. Through this programme, in-service training is provided to upgrade the skills and behaviour of the civil servants towards service delivery and make governance efficient. With the introduction of this mission, it becomes imperative to include public service motivation into the training programme to connect the human resource development:
With a view to make India one of the top sports nations by 2023, the Civil Aviation Ministry under the Government of India has launched National Air Sports policy 2022. The policy is launched with an aim to provide a safe, affordable, accessible, enjoyable and sustainable air sports ecosystem in India.Air sports, as the names suggests, includes various sports activities involving the medium of air - like air-racing, aerobatics, aero modeling, paragliding, para motoring, skydiving to name a few. India has a large geographical expanse, diverse topog-raphy, and fair-weather conditions. We also have a large population, especially the youth with the growing culture for adventure sports and aviation. The Union Minister of Civil Aviation, Jyotiraditya Scindia while launching the policy said that the Ministry wants to create an environment of adventure, thrill and sports in the country.
IIPA organized a one-day interactive session for the new IAS officers of 2020 batch undergoing three months stint as Assistant Secretaries in the Government of India on July 29, 2022. Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology; Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences; MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr Jitendra Singh graced the workshop. While addressing the new IAS officers, the Minister said that the next 25 years will be critical for India and the current batch of IAS officers are privi-leged as they have time on their side, moreover the opportunity to devote their next 25 years for active service to the nation.
Aditi Narayani Paswan
Let no man dare to call himself a nationalist if he does so merely with a sort of intellectual pride, thinking that he is more patriotic, thinking that he is something higher than those who do not call themselves by that name” this is a portion of a long speech, which Sri Aurobindo delivered in 1908 at Mahajan Wadi, Bombay. The sentiment and psychological expression or force between these lines contains an emotional expression called “Nationalism.” It is a state of mind associated with the supreme loyalty of an individual towards one’s na-tive tradition, soil, or established territorial authority. But how it originated, developed, and historically shaped is a matter of debate. One group of scholars perceived it as a “socially active sentiment of attachment to land, language, and the cult (traditional patriotism) that culminated in the form of nationalism during the colonial period. But another group saw it as a cultural construct of colonialism. Unlike Europe, where its ‘loyalty” devel-oped through industrialization, urbanization, and print capitalism, the Indian “loyalty” evolved through cultural interaction and shared identities of diverse social, geographical, and cultural groups of people in India. This phenomenon culminated in nationalism during the colonial regime by absorbing diverse social, religious, and linguistic groups. Thus Indian nationalism represents an inclusive and composite social integration. It is well articulated in the ideas and philosophy of architecture of modern India, which had multiplicity in their nationalist visions or idea of nationalism. Therefore, it acquired different articulation in different phases. But, there were certain principles, which had been the core of such “cultural visualization” like inclusiveness and pluralism.
Gujarat, today considered the growth engine of India, wit-nessed a turnaround from being a water scarce state to wa-ter secure state in the first decade of the 21st century under Narendra Modi’s leadership, resulting in sustained double digit agricultural and economic growth. Its transformation by adopting environment–friendly policies, climate–resilient engineering, and strengthening grassroots leadership, which stand out as an example of sustainable development and offers a path to follow. This article throws light on the steps taken in the State since 2001 that have become the basis for new policies and practices at the national level and have the potential to make an impact, especially in the Global South to achieve sustainable development goals and prosperity.
“In Environmental lawsuits, the term “judicial activism” signifies the anxiety of judges to find out suitable rem-edies for environmental problems. At the international level, the right to life is now acknowledged as a funda-mental right to include an adequate environment for the health as well of individual beings. In the situation of such developments in the worldwide scenarios, the judicial decisions given by Indian judiciary are particularly crucial to examine.” Hon’ble Justice V.R. Krishna Iyer in the case of Ratlam Municipality vs. Vardhichandi , stated that “the human rights calling for the unpolluted environment must be implemented irrespective of financial constraints. The public nuisance because of pollutants is a challenge to the social justice component of the rule of law.”
Tracing the trajectory of the concept of ‘participation and development’ the governments have walked half ways to ensure actual citizen participation. A representing agency, be it government or private has constrained the citizens from exercising their will. The concept of ‘community participation’ began in 1970s, following the approach of ‘project with people’, the involvement of the people with the institutions of local governance has largely turned ‘democracy into bureaucracy’ rather than ‘representation into participation’.
Sarita Mishra Kolhe
The Government of India, in recognition of the multiple challenges to secondary education, launched a centrally-sponsored programme in 2009, called the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA). The RMSA aimed to provide universal access to secondary education by 2017, with universal retention / completion by 2020.
MRINAL KUMAR DAS
Origins of Geoeconomics can be traced to the beginning of human civilization itself. Geoeconomics as a geopolitical pressure choke is not new. In more recent past it used to be a part of geopolitics, serving both as a means and an end. Few developments of twentieth and twenty-first century indicate that geoeconomics has come out of the closet of geopolitics and assumed primacy in foreign policy. Looking at events surrounding a few geopolitical hotspots, controversies involving climate change gives interesting insights.
The Government of India made a decisive intervention to reform the criminal justice system, in 2022, after 100 years of its criminal legal framework being introduced by the colonial masters. The new Criminal Procedure (Identification) Bill, 2022 will not only aim at decolonisation of the Indian judiciary but also rebooting it by up-dating with technological innovations and professionalisation of legal agencies. Government must continue to reform the judiciary in order to make it more accessible and affordable to every citizen in the country. Thus, the judiciary should address the contemporary needs and aspirations of the people.
Canada is home to approximately 4 per cent of people of Indian origin, the deep cultural and political ties be-tween Canada and India are strengthened by a growing network of official dialogues, agreements, MoUs and working groups. This paper throws light on the diplomatic relations between India and Canada and how they have been evolved in the recent years--right from historical to political, economic, educational and scientific engagements between the two nations, the challenges that have emerged and caused disruption between the two nations and a suitable way forward.
AI-driven analytics is an emancipatory aid to decision-making in systems, and an increasingly intense inter-disciplinary endeavour of our time. Its essence as a prudent business-proposition, however, lies in ensuring that outcomes are real-time and correlated with a vision on metrics. A good model of AI-Analytics also does its best to keep its operational excellence aligned to the preferred values of the end-user and provides agility, safety and sustainability as well.
The sixty-eight Annual Meeting of the General Body of Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) was held on October 31, 2022 at the T.N.C Memorial Hall of the Institute. The event was graced with the presence of Hon’ble Vice President of India and President IIPA, Shri Jagdeep Dhankhar. It also marked the first visit of the Hon’ble Vice President to IIPA after assuming office. Reflecting on the achievements of IIPA over the year, the Hon’ble Vice President of India said that ‘Mission Karmayogi enables an ecosystem that allows every individual in the government to exploit his/her potential. IIPA with its enormous potential has to catalyze that change’. The Vice President also called upon civil servants to take the lead in making India a developed nation during the ‘Amrit Kaal’ over the next 25 years. He suggested that they go by the spirit of the Prime Minister’s principle of “Minimum Government - Maximum Governance”, observing that ‘it is not a mere slogan, but the need of the hour’. He also observed that the Prime Minister’s exhortation of ‘Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas, Sabka Vishwas, Sabka Prayas’ encapsulates the Indian civilisational ethos and the vision of the Indian constitution makers. He called upon the bureaucracy to make the vision a reality and work towards taking the government’s developmental vision to the last individual.
This article suggests a minor amendment in the ‘Companies Act 2013’ so that the concept of Shared Value can be incorporated in CSR policies of Companies operating in India. This initiative, according to the author, will dispense with unnecessary complications and ambiguities that currently hamstrung the CSR activities in the country. The central idea of this write-up is premised on the facts obtained from a case study to which the author was a witness. (Details have been published in IIPA Quarterly Digest Vol. 3.3) The concept of ‘Creating Shared Value’, widely popular in Business literature, has also substantially contributed to the formulation of the idea.
Amarjeet Sinha/D.K. Singh/N.N. Sinha
This paper examines the rise of the Self – Help Groups under the National Rural Health Mission and their contribution to social inclusion. The expansion has gone beyond just southern India, where these women’s collectives have played a very instrumental role in poverty reduction. The expansion and consolidation of the women’s collectives under the Rural Livelihood Mission affords an opportunity to provide timely credit for economic activity to vulnerable social groups and deprived households. This has the potential of providing an opportunity for an inclusive India through rural enterprises with size and scale. The paper goes on to look at the challenges that are coming in the way, in spite of an expansion of credit support to these groups on an unprecedented scale. The challenge of working capital and higher order economic activities on scale has been examined from a perspective of resolving the challenges within the framework of formal Banking.
The India-Switzerland bilateral relationship and strategic partnership has developed over the last 74 years and it would be fruitful to throw some light on the origins of this diplomatic and strategic bonding between the two nations and how it has evolved in sectors such as economy, trade, education, health, infrastructure, clean technology, research and development and has showcased a perfect example of a symbiotic relationship at a global level. The two democratic nations, who have never been enemies, should aspire to further strengthen the cooperation with a determined approach and combined effort to address the global challenges, explore additional opportunities to further improve bilateral engagements and gear up to testify the relationship on the occasion of 75th anniversary of a diplomatic and strategic partnership between the two nations in 2023.
Valuing a value is born out of deeply conscious personal choices. It arises from a basic human psychology that you would not want to do unto others what you would not have others do unto you. This comes out of an expectation of certain comfort-giving behavior and attitude from others. The reverse corollary is also applicable. For man being essentially self-centred, holding or choosing a certain value, over many other values is a matter of individual comfort. When you are hurt by someone having cheated you which created in you a sense of discomfort, then speaking the truth becomes a chosen value, not because it is an universal, ethical good, but because personally one does not want to suffer or be affected by hearing a lie. This constitutes the psychological order of human values upheld as Dharma or ethics, when also seen from a non empirical perspective. Religious texts, upbringing, code of conduct are prescriptive and confirmatory of what is right and what is wrong. The fundamental and foundational values of man wanting to be treated well and with good and rights-based behaviour, not causing hurt, injury, violence or neglect is at the basis of collective, ethical and universal human values.
Dr. Sarita Mishra Kolhe, IRS
Despite its rich natural resources and relatively good human development indicators, the North-Eastern (NE) region in India lagged in important parameters of growth, and there existed a big gap between the NE and the rest of India. The NE region suffered from three key impediments for development: (i) natural resources degradation; (ii) protracted insurgency in some areas; and (iii) lack of well-targeted and quality development efforts. The project helped to vitalize the local economy in a bottom – up approach so as to make the intervention responsive to the needs of the people in the NE region.
In 1948 when the Constitution of India was being framed and the values of pluralism were being discussed, one social reform became a bone of contention, it divided the Constituent Assembly and they debated for months but could not reach a consensus and finally they compromised on Uniform Civil Code (UCC) . UCC means one civil code common to all. It would have meant the abolition of personal laws. Now the question arises what are personal laws? These laws are based on scriptures, religious texts that regulate almost every aspect of life, marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, guardianship, etc. A lot of these laws were discriminatory, unfair to minority groups and women. The Sharia law had provisions that deprived women of inheritance, certain Hindu customs deprived women of remarriage so what the Constituent Assembly wanted was to abolish or limit such laws. They wanted to govern India by Constitution so that the same laws apply equally to all citizens irrespective of their religion, sex, gender, etc.
Dr. Shyamli Singh/ Monika Saini
Indeed, people think of wetlands as the wasteland and not more than that because no developmental activities can occur in wetlands. In real scenario, wetlands act like the sponges which stores water and help it to remain saturated. Eventually it helps in reducing the floods by retaining water and slowly releasing it. Wetlands are also known as ‘Kidneys of the earth’ due to their capacity and ability to filter out the waste and lock the pollutants in the vegetation and sediments. It is home to rich variety of birds, animals and plants. Wetlands have regulating, provisional, cultural and supporting significance to the millions of life. It is one of the most productive ecosystems on the earth. A mangrove is a wetland type which provides the physical buffering to climate change impacts or natural disasters.
Intellectual property is indeed a creation of human intelligence that is always present around us, both inside and externally, and on which we exist. It’s critical to evaluate the influence of IPRs on creativity, the economy, and society, and afterwards put in place the necessary resources, tools, regulations, and authorities to enable a functional IP system. IPRs are increasingly taking on extra responsibilities as a result of the interplay between globalised markets, national authorities, and local norms
Dr. Kalpana Gopalan
A career in the Indian Administrative Service throws up many opportunities for Leadership. Yet, for me, the unique, once-in-a-lifetime experience is the role I played in the establishment of the new district of Udupi. Yes, the temple town which was home to the famous Lord Krishna temple.
Today, worldwide, there is an apparent increase in many infectious diseases, which reflects the combined impacts of rapid demographic, environmental, social, technological and other changes in our ways of living. Climate change will affect infectious disease occurrence in humans. It is a known fact that climatic conditions affect epidemic diseases from long before the role of infectious agents was discovered, late in the nineteenth century. Changes in infectious disease transmission patterns are a likely major consequence of climate change. Climate changes include alternations in one or more climate variables including temperature, precipitation, wind, and sunshine. These changes may impact the survival, reproduction or distribution of disease pathogens and hosts, as well as the availability and means of their transmission environment. The health effects of such impacts tend to reveal as shifts in the geographic and seasonal patterns of human infectious diseases and as changes in their outbreak frequency and severity. Climate change is the prime health threat facing humanity and health professionals worldwide. Countries are already responding to the health harms caused by this unfolding disaster. Abundant literature addresses the factorial and potential impacts of climate change on many types of infectious diseases, including vector borne, water-borne, airborne, and food-borne diseases.
The Foundation Day of the Indian Institute of public Administration (IIPA) was commemorated on March 29, 2023 with the 2nd Dr Rajendra Prasad Memorial Lecture delivered by the Hon’ble Vice President of India, Shri Jagdeep Dhankhar and special address by the Hon’ble Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh, who is also the Chairman of IIPA Executive Council.
Nancy Pathak And Manish Kumar Tiwary
In the federal polity, the state governments are sovereign in their respective domains and have been provided with their own State services as a steel frame for their governance. Although, to provide a pan India character to the public services, our Constitution makers had adopted the “All India Services” (which was common to both the Union and state governments) to integrate the different states into Indian union and standardize administration across the Indian territory. Known as the Father of the “All India Services” Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel had expressed the importance and need of All-India Services by stating that “you will not have a united India, if you do not have a good all-India service which has the independence to speak out its mind” (Harini Srinivasan, 2018). Given the Quasi-federal character of the federation, All India Services have proved to be a steel frame of smooth continuity between the State administration and Central administration. Likewise, in the administration of Forests surrounding the Tribal belts of the country, the role played by Indian Forest Services has considerably evolved and has remained extremely crucial. Yet, this article will try to explore the possibiities of bottom-up mobility in the Indian Forest Services and the need for making it more representative, by also inducting experts from the field to meet technical, specific and specialized needs of their area of administration.
The Supreme Court’s Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) judgment epitomizes American Political Philosopher John Rawls’s theory of justice with fairness for it fulfills both cardinal prerequisites of the Rawls social contract that exhorts for “greatest benefit to the least advantaged” achieved through the quintessential ‘veil of ignorance’. EWS may be a harbinger of a new governance paradigm to celebrate, ideate, promulgate, and deepen constitutional promises in the state-citizen matrix.
So that’s the story. Decades of public intervention, however tardy or inefficient, in everything from the provision of food, housing, education and health care to roads, power, and telecommunications and circulatory migration to distant labour markets across the country – i.e., the visible hand of the state combined with the invisible hand of the market – has radically transformed the lives of these villagers in one of the remotest and most backward corners of India. Poverty has not been eliminated. Most of the people we met are still very poor. But the haunting images of extreme deprivation, emaciated and hungry people in tatters I saw everywhere 45 years ago have mercifully disappeared.” Sudipto Mundle, Live Mint 2022, makes a brilliant summary of what he saw. He is indeed very real on rural.
Shyamli Singh And Monika Saini
"The holy Ganga River, a symbol of purity and spirituality, holds a special place in the hearts of millions, inspiring reverence and devotion."
Capacity building is not only training but also a way to unlock the human potential. There are many other ways to protect the River Ganga through use of technologies, cleaning and many more, nevertheless the capacity building plays a major role. The way that a person views the Ganga River depends on his or her personal, social and cultural values, which are reflected in how that person engages with the river on various occasions. A sage may use it as a place of devotion, while a scientist may use it as a centre for research. Different perspectives would be taken by different communities. Capacity building initiates that spark into the minds of people that make them better understand the holiness of the River Ganga and come up with the best solutions.
Sreni Thota And Sumit Sharma
India has a long and proud history of space exploration. The country’s first satellite, Aryabhatta, was launched in 1975, and India has since become a major player in the global space community. In recent years, the Indian government has taken steps to further develop the country’s space sector. In 2023, the government formed the Indian Space Policy 2023, which outlines the government’s vision for the Indian space sector in the coming years.
The tides and currents of the Indo-Pacific have alerted the major economic and political powerhouses of the world about the relevance of safety and security in the region in every sense. Almost every nation is now pondering and diving deep into the strategic depths to frame the geoeconomic policies and geostrategic plan of actions that suit their nation vis-à-vis the Indo-Pacific region. This article forms an opinion about the relevance of the Indo-Pacific, the geopolitical shifting of gears in the region, and further attempts to understand the new maritime challenges, the strategic policies of various nations, and how India’s strategic plan of action can act as the best way forward in the Indo-Pacific region.
Geethanjali Nataraj And Nikhil Joshi
Developing semiconductors within the country is essential for the Indian government's goal of establishing a domestic electronics supply chain and decreasing reliance on foreign countries, particularly China, which continues to be a leading destination for such manufacturing despite its own problems. India is currently facing a critical moment to enter the field of electronics manufacturing, as semiconductor chips play a crucial role in all electronic devices. With more companies seeking to diversify their manufacturing, India has the chance to position itself as a dependable alternative to existing manufacturing countries. From 2017 to 2022, the semiconductor manufacturing sales value of India experienced a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of nearly 11%. According to a report from Deloitte, the market is projected to reach a value of $55 billion by 2026, growing from $27 Billion in 2022 at a 20% CAGR. The report highlights that three industries, namely smartphones and wearables, automotive components, and computing and data storage, are expected to drive over 60% of the market growth. Following the Government’s push under the India Semiconductor Mission, the country is said to manufacture its first Chips in December 2024, with 4-5 semiconductor facilities expected to be built by mid-2024.
When I read this quote I felt it was apt for the piece I have written.
It goes without saying that enthusiasm and dedication for politics, policy concerns, and current affairs are important for a Government Officer. In order to address this there has to be certain skills to include interest in the sector in order to excel and flourish in a job under the government. A nation is influenced by politics and policy where everybody has an opinion.
Sarita Mishra Kolhe IRS
Health is a major contributor to poverty in India. Communicable diseases continue to account for nearly half of disease burden, of which Tuberculosis is among the most widespread cause of morbidity, disability and mortality. In order to address this large and costly burden of the disease, the Government of India is currently implementing the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP).
Nivedita Singh And Indra Daman Tiwari
This paper aims to present a comparative analysis of ancient Indian legal systems and modern Indian legal systems’ perspectives on the right to an abortion. Abortion is the simple phrase for ending a pregnancy at any point when the embryo is unable to sustain itself outside the mother’s womb. It is a delicate subject that has long been the focus of discussion. The pro-life and pro-choice sides of the argument can be separated into two categories. The perspective on abortion in India can be found in literature from the Rigveda and Manusmriti school of ancient Indian law. Although produced by academics with expertise in law, these ancient Indian books were not legislative enactments.
V. Srinivas, IAS
Hon’ble Minister of State for Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension,
Secretary Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances
Chief Secretary, Government of Arunachal Pradesh
Respected dignitaries on the dais, Ladies and Gentlemen
In "G20@2023: The Roadmap to Indian Presidency," authored by Shri. V. Srinivas, readers are treated to an engrossing and enlightening exploration of the G20, with a particular focus on India's role and evolution of G20 from its origins, as a response to the Asian financial crisis to its current influential position in shaping global economic governance. This comprehensive book not only delves into the history and significance of the G20 but also offers a futuristic perspective, providing a paradigm for India's aspiration and preparedness to join the elite group of the G7.
लोक प्रकाशन 2008 से प्रकाशित इंडियन जर्नल ऑफ पब्लिक एडमिनिस्ट्रेशन का एक हिंदी द्वि-वार्षिक पत्रिका है। यह लोक प्रशासन, सामाजिक विज्ञान, सार्वजनिक नीति, शासन, नेतृत्व, पर्यावरण आदि से संबंधित लेखों को कवर करने वाली एक सहकर्मी-समीक्षा वाली शोध पत्रिका है।
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Shashi Bhushan Kumar
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Rajbir Singh Dalal
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Shyam Mohan Aggrawal And Sumitra Devi Sharma
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The book is a tribute to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the General of Bardoli, the Lion of Gujarat, the Iron Man of India, and the Sardar of the country’s struggle for independence, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, on his 146th birth anniversary. Patel laid the scaffolding of a steel frame for the emergence of a new India. His life and biography are emblematic of an India destined to rise from its ashes. Winning freedom and giving strength to this emerging India was dear to him like no other thing. No wonder, he put his blooming personal career in law, and the aspirations of his family-members at stake at the call of Gandhiji. His nature, temperament, and aspirations rebelled against the injustice; whether by the British, or the compatriots. He was fully committed to unity, integrity, and future of India. He was as much realistic as futuristic, unfettered to the geo-politics or the philosophies of his times; with grasp over the nature of human minds he commanded like no other leader of his times had. He could foresee and calculate the consequences of the decisions India needed to take, or the consequences of the ones missed. No wonder, he went hammer and tongs about the integration of princely states, redesigning but retaining the central civil services, and the constitutional provisions he was in-charge of. His idealism was never woolly, nor his promises wordy. A man of few words, meticulous in his approach, he concerned himself more with the practical outcome of ideas and efforts, the world of ideas and ideals as mere mental construct, or categories. His organizing skills brought people with contrasting sensibilities on the common platform. His captaincy of integrating the 565 princely states into the Union of India is a hair-raising story of grit, personal sacrifice and strength of conviction. No wonder, Sardar Patel was a mass leader, an astute diplomat, able administrator, with an inclusive view of life. He never gave to populism and politics of appeasement, or to careerism, as the national interest was the only reality paramount to him. What, if not this would have made anyone the greatest statesman of modern India, arguably of all times. The book Sardar Patel: Builder of Aspirational India brings out traits of his personality that are the byword of the elements that underpin the spirit of Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat. This book is a take by prominent administrators and academics inspired by the life, ideals and values that define Sardar Patel. Lucid in language, coherent in contents, erudite in knowledge, accurate in description, pragmatic in approach, the book offers a holistic overview of Sardar Patel’s contributions to aspirational India. The interesting illustrations by contributors would fascinate and inspire the readers to coevolve with the mystic beauty of unraveled past.
ISBN : 978-81-955533-3-4 2021.
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SURENDRA NATH TRIPATHI And SAKET BIHARI
The intellectually and spiritually ever-fertile soil of India has produced many great men in the fields of polity, culture, economy, religion, philosophy, and beliefs. Standing tall amongst the luminaries of India’s struggle for freedom was Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. The book Sardar Patel: Builder of Aspirational India is a tribute to the iron man of Indian politics, Sardar Patel. We all know that he was the pivot of integration of several hundreds of princely states strewn around the length and breadth of the country and an able initiator of the process of India becoming- a nation state. Sardar’s contribution in redesigning and aligning the central civil services around the notion of unity and integrity, drafting of the constitution, and of course, as the leading light of the freedom struggle on the lines of the Gandhian principles has certainly been well documented, acknowledged, and celebrated. However, his contribution and the values he stood for and devoted his life for, signifies, all the more, importance in today’s circumstances of heightened geopolitics and nationalistic sentiment that has gained currency in all parts of the world.
“We always speak of India’s culture, of India’s civilisation, but do we ever pause to think that the relief of the poor, mutual aid amongst neighbours, charity to the helpless and kindness to the downtrodden have been the shining virtues of that culture and civilisation? Let us ask ourselves if we are living in the spirit of those ancient virtues!” — Sardar Patel Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is one of the foremost figures in the annals of the Indian national movement. Due to his versatile personality he made manysided contributions, to the national cause during the struggle for freedom and subsequently after attainment of Independence for consolidation of our hard won freedom. While assessing his contribution to administration indeed governance, one has to take into consideration his personality, the forces that shaped the man, his philosophy of life and the organisational and public as well as experience that he gained while mobilising forces for political resistance to alien rule in different ways for different purposes, and at different times. It will be a narrow view of the subject to confine oneself only to the evaluation of his direct association with administration after the formation of the Interim Government in September 1946 till his death in December 1950. What he strived for and achieved during this span of about four years as part of the Government, was largely motivated and sustained by his observations and experiences during his earlier public and political life and the ideals that sustained the freedom struggle.
ATUL KUMAR TIWARI
India @75 which we celebrate today and take it for granted, underwent perilous circumstances during the period 1946-50. Humanitarian horrors of the partition, religious riots, refugee settlement, scarcity of all kinds on the one hand; while on the other, the challenge of integrating princely states to a united India and drafting of a constitution for the Republic of India. And in midst of all, the founding fathers of India had to, with depleted number of civil servants to assist them, ensure the transition of India to a state of peace, order, liberty and stability while effecting demobilisation of politically active elements and guiding them to nation-building.
Sardar Patel is hailed as the greatest visionary administrator of India. His contributions towards building up the civil services in post-independence India and his vision and ideas about administration can be considered as the ‘gold standard’ of public administration, governance and public policy. Though there are hundreds of great lessons we learn from Sardar Patel, seven of them are highlighted here – existence of IAS, minister-administrator relations, values and ethics, leadership lessons, the real meaning of freedom, vision on economy, and lessons for future administrators. When in need, a modern-day administrator should look upto Patel for a solution – apt, timely and effective.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was a mass leader, politician, administrator and an astute diplomat. A patriot to the core, Sardar Patel was imbued with practical sagacity and ranks amongst the greatest architects of free India. The contribution of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, known as the ‘Iron Man of India’, to the Indian Freedom struggle has been remarkable and incomparable. A man of sharp intellect and character, he has always been an immense source of inspiration not only during the Indian freedom movement but also in the present times
The historical root of the concept of India as a modern nation acquired form, shape and identity through the process of anti-colonial movement. Before the emergence of Indian national movement, India as an identity was portrayed as a mere geographical entity with divisive social, cultural, linguistic, religious and political expressions by imperialist and neo-imperialist historians. In the process of research on the notion of nation it has emerged as a complex concept. Social scientists agree that it may not be easy to define a nation. There is always the danger of reification, emanating from singular aspect of nation and nationalism – be it cultural, religious, political or economic. It has also been seen how significant myth, history and reason become essential in defining concept of nation and nationalism.
How much do we know about this man to whom we owe our ‘Union of India’. Was his indispensability even known to those who were unfurling tricolor from the Red Fort on 15th August 1947 or on the previous night met as a Constituent Assembly to kickstart a visionary legal framework for the world’s largest hula-hoop of 566 independent kingdoms? Was it even possible without Sardar’s iron manacle that fastened all intransigent, self-serving and avaricious micro-kingdoms, into the ‘Union of India’. What meaning was the exercise of independence when 48 per cent of India’s land was owned just by these princes and nawabs? Despite accepting a two-nation theory and making a choice in favour of absurdity for peace, lights from greed and ego-filled palaces mocked and blinded the new republic
B. B. MISHRA
In the state of Gujarat hitherto unknown, a place called Nadiyar has now become a place for tourists coming wide-eyed to see the statue. One of the tallest in the world– Sardar Patel, who was not onlyuniversally regarded but alsoa stalwart in freedom movement. The statue is visible to miles and if anyone asks as to who was, people looked at him in utter surprise. He was not only a great freedom fighter and incomparable organiser, a good speaker and a hard worker, but also a suave and persuasive man. At the same time, he was a no-nonsense hardliner who for the sake of the country could go to any length. A great devotee of Gandhiji, Patel sometimes differed with him and had the courage to tell it on his face. But when it came to the question of personal interest unlike Subhas Bose, Pandit Nehru differed with Gandhiji. Netaji Subhas Bose even contested for the post of President of Indian National Congress against Gandhiji’s nominee Pattavi Sitaramaya and won. Whereas in 1928 after his victory in Bordoli, Patel came to break the news to everyone. He earned approbation everywhere and obviously he was the choice for almost all leaders for the post of Chairman of Indian National Congress. Motilal Nehru who was sick, pleaded for his son Jawaharlal. Gandhiji asked the Sardar to recuse and like a good obedient student that the Sardar withdrew. When again in 1946 the question of choosing the Prime Minister arose, out of 12 state Congress Committees, 9 were in favour of Sardar Patel and 3 for Pt. Nehru. Yet Mahatma Gandhi opted for Pt. Nehru and asked Sardar Patel to withdraw. The reason for this decision by Gandhiji is yet to be known. Had Patel been the Prime Minister of India, many historians guess that, maybe Tibet would not have been lost and Kashmir not vivisected. Anyway conjectures are propositions but what really happened is placed before historians for scrutiny.
SUNIL SHUKLA And AMIT KUMAR DWIVEDI
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, ‘the Iron Man of India’, has been a prominent name that gave us the delineation of today’s India. His role in uniting for more than 500 princely states into one `Bharat’ can never be forgotten. He has been a firm personality, renowned barrister, great freedom fighter and a leader, par excellence. Patel, who later became the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister, showed India the path of self-sufficiency and economic development. His visions and actions always led the country towards a better future. Sardar Patel, in several ways laid the foundation of entrepreneurial India. Many of his Satyagraha brought out the entrepreneurial qualities in people, especially the peasants of Gujarat. After becoming the Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister, his major focus was on the development of the country as a self-sufficient and entrepreneurial nation. Many times, he laid focus on the import imbalance of country and encouraged the countrymen in a way that led them to be great entrepreneurs. A befitting tribute to him, the magnanimous Statue of Unity, in Kevadia (Gujarat) stands as a testimony to the honour and acknowledgment that Sardar Patel and his contributions warrant. The paper focuses on the major steps of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel that helped our country to lead a way of self-sufficiency and develop an entrepreneurial ecosystem. Today, India is one of the most desirable entrepreneurial ecosystems for budding entrepreneurs. This has been made possible only because Sardar Patel initiated steps to build a strong and united nation
Vallabhbhai Patel popularly known as Sardar Patel is one of the most revered figures in modern Indian history. Besides his total and uncompromising commitment to the cause of national integration, Sardar’s sense of justice and personal sacrifice endeared him to the generations to come. As we know, the most significant contribution of Sardar Patel was to take up the arduous challenge of integrating 565 Princely States to make the union of India. Sardar Patel accomplished this through dint of diplomacy and statesmanship, and rare if any use of violence, earning him the sobriquet ‘Iron man of India’. Howard Spodek writes that Sardar Patel was, “The Iron Man of strength, supporting other leaders in times of struggle, the man of will and direction when others vacillated or were muddled in their goals; the pragmatist with his feet on the ground when others took to the clouds”.1 He is also celebrated as the ‘patron saint of India’s civil servants’ for aligning and orienting the all-India services system to the administrative needs of an emerging nation. The services since then have provided the edifice of a steel frame to the organisational structure, and administration of the country.
SUBHASH C. KASHYAP
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was one of the greatest Indians who ever strode this earth. His was a multi-faceted and multi-splendoured personality. His contributions to building and enriching the nation were varied and in many diverse fields. Beginning his political career with the membership of the Ahmedabad city board, Vallabhbhai gave expression to his vision of independent India when he said that “no one would die of starvation in independent India”, its leaders would not “use a foreign language”, “military expenditure would not be heavy”, “army would not subjugate its own people or other lands”, “its best-paid officials would not earn a great deal more than its lowest paid servants” and “finding justice in it would be neither costly nor difficult”. As years and decades roll by and we are faced with newer and newer problems, Sardar Patel’s vision and message become more and more relevant.
I would like to begin my article by stating at the very outset that the Constitutional foundations of the civil services in India owes a great deal to the vision of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and his perception of what a future public servant’s mandate should look like in democratic India after independence. I will commence with a few reflective assertions on the world’s largest and longest written constitutional text, the iconic 395 articles and 8 schedules of the Indian constitution. As the fundamental law of the land, it has now been transformed to 448 articles grouped into 25 parts, with 12 schedules and five appendices. This transformed Constitution is my point of reference and should be every civil servant’s point of reference as they take the oath to serve the nation and its people. I look at the overarching values as stated in the Constitution and then revisit the civil service rules which are constitutionally embedded largely due to the efforts of Sardar Patel. These articles can be invoked by all civil servants to operationalise laws pertaining to the constitutional values of liberty, equality, fraternity and justice.
YOGINDER K. ALAGH
I was asked to write on the Sardar as a political leader. I thought it would repeat other pieces in the volume by Netajis; more competent than me since I was only a temporary politico. But I am a teacher and planner and have chosen Gujarat as my Karma Bhumi. So I volunteered to write on the educational and social institutions in the State, commemorating his memory. Most of them were created and led by those who knew him.
On a pleasant June morning in 1895, 20-year-old Vallabh walks roughly 17 Km, from his home in Karamsad to his school in Petlad. He left home at 5 am to just be in time for the school assembly. On the way to his classroom, he notices that one of his classmates is pulled out of the assembly by a strict teacher and barred from attending classes, till he clears the fine imposed on him for an earlier mischief. The young boy pleads forgiveness and expresses his inability to pay the fine because of the poor financial condition of his family. The disciplinarian teacher refuses to give head and bars him from entering the classroom. Vallabh watches the exchange quietly from a distance as a storm starts to brew in his head.
ANIL DUTTA MISHRA
The establishment of independent India derived legitimacy and power, broadly speaking, from the exertions of three great men, Gandhi, Nehru and Patel. But while its acknowledgments are fulsome in the case of Nehru and dutiful in the case of Gandhi, they are niggardly in the case of Patel. “That there is today an India to think and talk about ”, President Rajendra Prasad wrote in his diary on May 13, 1959, “is very largely due to Sardar Patel’s statesmanship and firm administration”. “Yet” added Prasad, “We are apt to ignore him”. Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was born on October 31, 1875, in a peasant family at Nadiad, a town in Kheda district from which his mother Ladbai hailed. His father Jhaverbhai, a small farmer with 10 to 12 acres of land in Karamsad village was a sturdy, upright and straightforward man of independent nature to whom the village folk flocked for advice and succour in times of distress. It is said that Jhaverbhai took part in the Great revolt of 1857 under the Rani of Jhansi and was later taken prisoner by the Holkar of Indore. He was an expert in chess and at a game so impressed Holkar that he released him and he returned to Karamsad after an absence of about 3 years. Vallabhbhai inherited from his father the skill to organise and plan a campaign or a movement at the opportune movement.
HIMANSHU SHEKHAR MISHRA
The unprecedented floods in Ahmedabad in the last week of July, 1927 was the first acid test of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel’s politico-administrative skills to deal with a climate-related disaster. He was the President of Ahmedabad Municipality when one of the worst climate-related disasters in India’s preindependence history struck the city. It followed incessant rainfall in Ahmedabad for seven consecutive days, starting in the evening of July 23 and continuing till July 29, 1927. ‘Meteorological records show that Ahmedabad received more rainfall during this week than the average rainfall it normally received in a year. According to the Monthly Weather Report of the Indian Meteorological Department, 1270 mm of rainfall was recorded in Ahmedabad during six days of which 737 mm were recorded in just 48 hours’.1 The scale of devastation unleashed by heavy rainfall and the consequent floods were so huge that, at one point of time, almost the entire city had got submerged in a few feet of water. In his biography on Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, his close political aide, Narhari B. Parikh has given a graphic description of the panic and fear in Ahmedabad when the heavy downpour was accompanied by very strong winds on July 24, forcing Vallabhbhai Patel to walk-out of his home late in the night with just an umbrella to take stock of the worsening situation:
C. SHEELA REDDY
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was a statesman gifted with the rare quality of astuteness and pertinacity in his approach to problems. Despite his stern exterior, he possessed a generous heart in the pursuit of larger objectives. He never allowed emotions or sentiments to weaken his resolve. Patel’s realism rested on the sound principle that the cause is greater than the individual. He was essentially a man of action and there was no place for vacillation, selfishness and cowardice in his scheme of things. He was a visionary and unifier of modern India.
While writing the story of his time, Athenian historian Thvucydides (460-400 BC) said that men and events should not be judged earlier than 100 years after their happening in order to give a right perspective to the story. Sardar Patel does not meet that historical deadline and may be for this reason his role in the making of modern India is not fairly judged. It may not be right to ask what would have happened to the US without Washington, to Turkey without Ataturk, to Germany without Bismarck and to Italy without Garibaldi. But we owe it to history to answer what would have happened to India without Sardar Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (October 31, 1875 to December 15, 1950), a man with stern, rough hewn face, the dhoti clad Gujarati lawyer whose education and training at bar in London did not change the Indianness which was in his blood. But for Patel, India would never have been united. The creation of Pakistan was the beginning of the division of Indian Territory, but further splitting was firmly checked by Patel, who persuaded and forced the Indian princes to merge with the Indian Union. Those who resisted had to face the consequences, as for example, the police action in Hyderabad.
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE