Abstract: A metropolitan area is characterized by administrative polycentricity. The institutional scene in metropolitan regions of India is complex and have a fragmented setup; with central, state and municipal agencies playing an active role in shaping policies and programmes that influences spatial growth in large cities and city-regions. Till the 1990s it was mainly the government departments and its agencies involved in providing infrastructure and services; now with neoliberal influence on urban development and related sectors private sector players are also involved. As a result, metropolitan areas in India are now characterized by multiple actors from private sector, civil society and government agencies. The functions devolved to ULBs through the 12th schedule of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act, 1992; are often found to be delivered by multiple agencies working with overlapping responsibilities and limited coordination. There are inter-state variations, as Urban Development is a state subject; the devolution of functions depends on the respective state governments. There are also intra-state differences, as larger cities with Municipal Corporations carry out more functions compared to smaller municipalities. This results in uncoordinated development and lack of accountability, transparency; and local governments (ULBs) are often bypassed in the process of urban development. This paper tries to critically review the governance and institutional set-up in four metropolitan areas in India – namely the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR), Ahmedabad-Gandhinagar Region, Jaipur Metropolitan Region and the National Capital Region (NCR). The overlapping functional and administrative jurisdictions of the various agencies involved in delivering some of the key urban infrastructure and services is analysed. The paper recommends measures to be taken for better coordinated planning and development of metropolitan areas and discusses aspects of the 74th CAA that requires critical rethinking.


Abstract: Due to the increasing trend of urbanization, the urban problem has become very difficult and complex, besides providing essential services to the citizens. It has very necessary to develop and plan related to works by the Urban Government. Information and communication technology are essential for speeding up the work process. look like a system. E-governance got legitimacy through the information Technology Act 2000 and under the National Governance plan 2006. The electronic method was given dominance in place of the traditional working method through 31 mission mode plans in municipalities. Efforts were made to make the municipal corporations, SMART i.e., simple, moral, accountable, and transparent, under this process. Currently, various facilities are being provided through E-governance in the municipal corporation of India. As a result, there has been a change in the work process of municipalities and better, paperless services are being provided to consumers reasonably. But in E-governance implementation, many challenges are also outgoing before the municipalities. Only by facing the challenges efficiency, honesty and transparency will be encouraged and irregularities like red tape will be put to an end. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study of e-governance in the constitutional institution, and the challenges before it have also been analysed.


Abstract: The world imore densely populated and more interconnected than ever before. The current state of play necessitates new types of governance to manage risk and address difficulties, from extrems e weather to refugee crises, from disease pandemics to cyber-attacks. Reactive planning and segregated decision-making processes used in business-as-usual will not produce the underlying strength and flexibility required for us to survive in the face of the shocks and strains of the twenty-first century. In this paper, the concept of urban climate resilience is examined and how it may be turned into a practical framework for planners. Further, it also illustrates the framework’s potential in the form of a case study of resilience planning initiatives carried out in Shimla


Abstract: Indian street food is as diverse as Indian cuisine. Every place has its own specialties to offer. They are described as wide range of ready-to-eat foods and beverages consumed on the streets without further preparation. Street vended foods are appreciated for their unique flavors as well as their convenience. In contrast to these potential benefits, they also provide employment to a large number of street food vendors who are often poor, uneducated, and lack knowledge in safe food handling. There are approximately one crore street vendors and out of them around 20- 25 lakh are street food vendors. The quality and safety of street foods is fundamental and is determined by numerous factors. In order to improve the conditions of street food vendors and to make sure that the food sold does not put at risk public health, the first and foremost necessity is to build awareness that food vendors should maintain certain quality standard. In many areas, street foods are sold and food safety issues are not taken into consideration neither on the producer nor on the consumer side. Consumers tend to look mostly at the taste, variety and price and might be already accustomed to the taste of unhealthy meals. Vendors, on the other hand, have a very small margin of profit and are incentivized to keep expenses low by utilizing low quality ingredients and disregarding costly hygienic practices.


Abstract: Smart Cities have emerged as instruments for facilitating innovative and citizen-centric urban transformation. Sustainable digital approaches are being embodied in city planning, infrastructure and service design. Besides effective use of city resources and data, cities like Dubai, Barcelona and New York are emphasizing on clean technology, people’s participation, happiness, equity, etc. A Smart City is understood to be one which uses Information and Communication Technology to improve on six key components: economy, people, governance, mobility, environment, and living. In India, Smart Cities Mission was launched by the Government in 2015 with an aim to improve quality of life by employing ‘smart solutions’ in 100 selected cities by strengthening their social, economic, physical and institutional pillars. It emphasized on creation of ‘replicable models’ of sustainable and inclusive development to act as ‘lighthouses’ for other aspiring cities. This paper aims to compile some of the best practices from around the globe that might guide India to metamorphose its urban spaces into innovative, citizen-centric Smart Cities. The data for the study has been collected from secondary sources. Through a descriptive analysis, the authors bring out the conceptual evolution of Smart Cities, the challenges of urbanization, and how cities around the globe are tackling them using clean and collaborative technology. The major findings reveal that there is a wide scope for India to learn from Smart City initiatives of other countries by adopting a bottom-up approach in policy and planning. This must be facilitated through collaborative technology and efficient governance measures, in which citizens act as the true ‘agents of change.’ This shall also usher in a way for the Smart Cities Mission to become wider in expanse and more effective in impact.


Abstract: The financial institutions and infrastructure project development based on PPP have always played an important role in financing Urban Infrastructure in India. In the present context, while continuing the same approach will bring in leveraged finance for large scale urban infrastructure, it is required to compliment this approach by using micro and medium sector project development using social equity based PPP for urban infrastructure projects. This needs to be an integral part of smart city development plans and is critical to enable all e-based transactional projects that support the development of urban infrastructure.


Abstract: As per MOEFCC, 62 million tonnes of waste was generated (1.69L TPD) in 2016. Of this, 5.6 million tonnes was plastic waste, 0.17 million tonnes was biomedical waste, 7.90 million tonnes was hazardous waste, 0.15 million tonne was e-waste. About 75-80% of the municipal waste is collected and only 22-28% of this is processed. Waste generation will increase from 62 million tonnes to about 165 million tonnes by 2030 and to 436 million tons by 2050. If cities continue to dump the waste at present rate without treatment, it will need 1240 hectares of land per year and with projected generation of 165 million tons of waste by 2031, the requirement of setting up of landfill for 20 years of 10 meters height will require 66,000 hectares of land. According to one estimate released in 2022, India's total methane emissions are in the range of 669MMtCo2e, of which 10.3% is from the waste sector which includes emissions from landfills, sewers, waste water etc. About 4% of this is estimated to be from landfills and dumpsites alone. Untapped waste can generate from biomass, 17.536 GW power, bagasse cogeneration 5 GW, waste to energy (WTE) 2.554 GW. The estimated total renewable potential amounted to 1096.080 GW including 1.3 million cubic metre of biogas per day from segregated wet waste, or 72 MW of electricity from biogas and 3.4 million metric tonnes of compost annually to support agriculture. Urban India per capita waste generation is 0.21 to 0.5 kg/person/day & Rural per capita waste generation is taken as 0.11 kg/person/day. While most cities have some kind of door-to-door or point to point collection systems in place, most villages have no systems in place for collection or processing. Hence, we need to implement all waste management Rules updated in 2016 in word and spirit.


Abstract: In a democratic society, citizen’s participation becomes important while preparing plans at different level. With the advent of various electronic means, citizen’s awareness has increased tremendously and can always participate in plan making exercise based on the problems and prospects of the area where they live. The paper broadly highlights the history of citizen’s participation and various efforts during the implementation of different mission from JNNURM to Smart cities. The paper also discusses the provisions for decentralized governance through 73rd and 74th Constitution Amendment Act. The hindrances and constraints in citizen’s participation have also been highlighted. The paper concludes with certain suggestions to strengthen the citizen’s participation to facilitate successful implementation on various plans.


Abstract: In line with global trend of increasing urbanization, India is also experiencing faster urbanization which has reached 34 per cent in 2018 (UN-WUP, 2018), creating a huge demand for serviced land, affordable housing supply, and social & physical infrastructural services. As per Census 2011, there were 108,000 slums in India, with around 13.75 million households (17% of total urban households) living in unhealthy & unhygienic environment. The recent outbreak of Covid19 pandemic has further intensified the criticality of the provision of adequate, affordable and inclusive housing in urban India. It is being increasingly realized that policies and planning would have to be made keeping people in mind and the people-centric housing approaches should focus not only on the rights-based approaches to inclusive & equitable access to adequate housing, but also on provision of basic civic services, sustainable livelihood opportunities, boosting skills & know-how, health infrastructure, providing access to formal financial services and creating a social security architecture for integrating the poor & informal urban settlements into the formal city value chain. This paper highlights Govt. of India’s latest people-centric housing approach in the form of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)–Housing for All (Urban) Mission, with four economically viable affordable housing verticals, which addresses the diverse nature and extent of housing shortage with differential socio-economic groups including slum dwellers, housing condition and tenure status across scales of urban demography. this paper also discusses some of the key constraints and suggests some key levers as way forward for adopting and scaling-up of people-centric approaches for housing in India in terms of suitable delivery models; access to land & tenure security; appropriate rights-based urban planning & management instruments; adequate and accessible formal institutional finance; and forms of community engagement. How well the country supports and addresses these enablers in these emerging difficult times, will determine how quickly and collectively we pursue the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals - Leaving no one behind


Abstract: Resources in general and financial resources in particular, remain critical and valuable, for any organization and institutions to work effectively and operate efficiently; urban local bodies are no exception to this governing rule and principle of organizational operation. Despite the fact that financial resources remain the major determinant and backbone of the operational efficiency and performance, yet majority of urban local bodies remain resource stressed, plagued with acute shortage of financial resources. Urban Local Bodies are known to have operational domain pan-city, but despite this distinct advantage, ULB remain perpetually in financial distress. Looking holistically, cities remain rich but majority of ULBs are ranked poor. However, perpetual poverty of ULBs can be attributed to and have genesis in their operational inefficiency; lack of understanding and lack of innovations to understand, analyze, explore and optimize the available resources. Looking at the vast and varied uses to which land can be put in the urban context, potential of land can be for generating financial resources and providing state of art basic infrastructures & services, without any financial implications on the part of local bodies. In search for appropriate options for generating adequate financial resources and making local bodies self-reliant, paper would look at the options of promoting planned development; undertaking schemes of land pooling and land distribution; involving private sector in land development and providing basic services; granting permission for change of land use; using the mechanism of salable and tradeable floor area ratio ;creating parking spaces; rationalizing advertisement rights; leveraging property tax; using the option of accommodation reservation etc. In addition, to explore the land based options detailed above, paper would also look at the option of involving local communities; rationalizing legal framework regulating urban local bodies besides identifying/ specifying subjects on which ULBs will have the exclusive right to determine, levy, collect and use taxes, levies, fees and charges; building capacity and empowering local bodies in the art and science of financial management and minimizing multiplicity of agencies operating at local level.